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Fruits by Mind Map: Fruits
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Fruits

In botany, a fruit is a part of a flowering plant that derives from specific tissues of the flower, mainly one or more ovaries. Fruits are the means by which many plants disseminate seeds. Many plants bearing edible fruits, in particular, have propagated with the movements of humans and animals in a symbiotic relationship as a means for seed dispersal and nutrition, respectively; in fact, humans and many animals have become dependent on fruits as a source of food.[1] Fruits account for a substantial fraction of the world's agricultural output, and some (such as the apple and the pomegranate) have acquired extensive cultural and symbolic meanings. The section of a fungus that produces spores is also called a fruiting body.[2] In common language usage, fruit normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of a plant that are sweet and edible in the raw state, such as apples, oranges, grapes, strawberries, and bananas.[3]On the other hand, the botanical sense includes many structures that are not commonly called "fruits", such as bean pods, corn kernels, wheat grains, and tomatoes.[4]

Apple

apple stem

apple core

Pear

The pear is any of several tree species of genus Pyrus ( /ˈpaɪrəs/) and also the name of the pomaceous fruit of these trees. Several species of pear are valued by humans for their edible fruit, but the fruit of other species is small, hard, and astringent. The genus Pyrus is classified in subtribe Pyrinae within tribe Pyreae. The apple (Malus domestica), which it resembles in floral structure, is also a member of this subcategory. The English word “pear” is probably from Common West Germanic pera, probably a loanword of Vulgar Latin pira, the plural of pirum, akin to Greek ἄπιος apios (from Mycenaean ápisos), which is likely ofSemitic origin. The place name Perry and Pharisoulopol can indicate the historical presence of pear trees. The term "pyriform" is sometimes used to describe something which is "pear-shaped".

Exotic

Coconut

The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera, is a member of the family Arecaceae (palm family). It is the only accepted species in the genus Cocos.[2] The term coconut can refer to the entire coconut palm, theseed, or the fruit, which is not a botanical nut. The spelling cocoanut is an old-fashioned form of the word.[3] The term is derived from 16th century Portuguese and Spanish cocos, meaning "grinning face", from the three small holes on the coconut shell that resemble human facial features. Found across much of the tropic and subtropic area, the coconut is known for its great versatility as seen in the many domestic, commercial, and industrial uses of its different parts. Coconuts are part of the daily diet of many people. When young, the entire fruits are used as melons. When mature, only the seeds are used as nuts. Its endosperm is initially in its nuclear phase suspended within the coconut water. As development continues, cellular layers of endosperm deposit along the walls of the coconut, becoming the edible coconut "flesh".[4] When dried, the coconut flesh is called copra. The oil and milkderived from it are commonly used in cooking and frying; coconut oil is also widely used in soaps and cosmetics. The clear liquid coconut water within is a refreshing drink and can be processed to create alcohol. The husks and leaves can be used as material to make a variety of products for furnishing and decorating. It also has cultural and religious significance in many societies that use it.

pineapple

Pineapple (Ananas comosus), a tropical plant with edible multiple fruit consisting of coalesced berries,[1] named for resemblance to the pine cone,[2] is the most economically important plant in theBromeliaceae family.[3] Pineapples may be cultivated from a crown cutting of the fruit,[4] possibly flowering in 20–24 months and fruiting in the following six months.[4][5] Pineapple may be consumed fresh, canned, juiced, and are found in a wide array of food stuffs – dessert, fruit salad, jam, yogurt, ice cream, candy, and as a complement to meat dishes. In addition to consumption, in the Philippines the pineapple's leaves are used as the source of a textile fiber called piña, and is employed as a component of wall paper and furnishings, amongst other uses.[6]

mango

The mango is a fleshy stone fruit belonging to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous tropical fruiting trees in the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. The mango is native to the Indian subcontinentfrom where it spread all over the world. It is one of the most cultivated fruits of the tropical world. While other Mangifera species (e.g. horse mango, M. foetida) are also grown on a more localized basis,Mangifera indica – the common mango or Indian mango – is the only mango tree commonly cultivated in many tropical and subtropical regions, and its fruit is distributed essentially worldwide. In several cultures, its fruit and leaves are ritually used as floral decorations at weddings, public celebrations and religious ceremonies.

papaya

The papaya (from Carib via Spanish), papaw, or pawpaw is the fruit of the plant Carica papaya, the sole species in the genus Carica of the plant family Caricaceae. It is native to the tropics of theAmericas, and was first cultivated in Mexico[1] several centuries before the emergence of the Mesoamerican classical civilizations. The papaya is a large tree-like plant, with a single stem growing from 5 to 10 metres (16 to 33 ft) tall, with spirally arranged leaves confined to the top of the trunk. The lower trunk is conspicuously scarredwhere leaves and fruit were borne. The leaves are large, 50–70 centimetres (20–28 in) diameter, deeply palmately lobed with 7 lobes. The tree is usually unbranched, unless lopped. The flowers are similar in shape to the flowers of the Plumeria, but are much smaller and wax-like. They appear on the axils of the leaves, maturing into the large 15–45 centimetres (5.9–18 in) long, 10–30 centimetres (3.9–12 in) diameter fruit. The fruit is ripe when it feels soft (as soft as a ripe avocado or a bit softer) and its skin has attained an amber to orange hue. Carica papaya was the first transgenic fruit tree to have its genome deciphered.[2]

Nectarine

The peach tree, Prunus persica, is a deciduous tree, native to China, where it was first cultivated. It bears an edible juicy fruit called a peach. The species name persica refers to its widespread cultivation in Persia, whence it was transplanted to Europe. It is classified with the almond in the subgenus Amygdalus, distinguished from the other subgenera by the corrugated seed shell. It belongs to the subfamily Prunoideae of the family Rosaceae.

Citrus

Citrus is a common term and genus (Citrus) of flowering plants in the rue family, Rutaceae. Citrus is believed to have originated in the part of Southeast Asia bordered by Northeastern India, Myanmar(Burma) and the Yunnan province of China.[1][2][3] Citrus fruit has been cultivated in an ever-widening area since ancient times; the best-known examples are the oranges, lemons, grapefruit, and limes. The generic name originated in Latin, where it specifically referred to the plant now known as Citron (C. medica). It was derived from the ancient Greek word for cedar, κέδρος (kédros). Some believe this was because Hellenistic Jews used the fruits of C. medica during Sukkot (Feast of the Tabernacles) in place of a cedar cone,[4] while others state it was due to similarities in the smell of citrus leaves and fruit with that of cedar.[5] Collectively, Citrus fruits and plants are also known by the Romance loanword agrumes (literally "sour fruits"). The taxonomy and systematics of the genus are complex and the precise number of natural species is unclear, as many of the named species are hybrids clonally propagated through seeds (byapomixis), and there is genetic evidence that even some wild, true-breeding species are of hybrid origin.[6] Cultivated Citrus may be derived from as few as four ancestral species. Natural and cultivated origin hybrids include commercially important fruit such as the oranges, grapefruit, lemons, some limes, and some tangerines. Research suggests that the closely related genus Fortunella (kumquats), and perhaps also Poncirus and the Australian Microcitrus and Eremocitrus, should be included in Citrus; most botanists now classify Microcitrus and Eremocitrus as part of the genus Citrus.[7] Two additional genera: Triphasia and Clymenia are likewise very closely related, and bear hesperidium fruits, but are not considered part of the Citrus genus. At least one, Clymenia, will hybridize with kumquats and some limes.

Orange

An orange—specifically, the sweet orange—is the citrus Citrus × ​sinensis (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) and its fruit.[2] It is the most commonly grown tree fruit in the world.[3] The orange is a hybrid of ancient cultivated origin, possibly between pomelo (Citrus maxima) and mandarin (Citrus reticulata).[4] It is an evergreen flowering tree generally growing to 9–10 m in height (although very old specimens have reached 15 m).[5] The leaves are arranged alternately, are ovate in shape with crenulate margins and are 4–10 cm long.[6] The orange fruit is a hesperidium, a type ofberry.[7] Orange trees are widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical climates for the sweet fruit, which is peeled or cut (to avoid the bitter rind) and eaten whole, or processed to extract orange juice, and also for the fragrant peel.[8] In 2008, 68.5 million tons of oranges were grown worldwide, primarily in Brazil and the US states California[9] and Florida.[10] Oranges probably originated in Southeast Asia[8] and were cultivated in China by 2500 BC. The fruit of Citrus sinensis is called sweet orange to distinguish it from Citrus aurantium, the bitter orange. The name is thought to derive ultimately from the Sanskrit[11] for the orange tree, with its final form developing after passing through numerous intermediate languages. In a number of languages, it is known as a "Chinese apple", e.g., Dutch sinaasappel ("China's apple") or appelsien, or northern German Apfelsine.[12] In English, however, "Chinese apple" generally refers to the pomegranate.[13]

Lemon

The lemon (Citrus × limon) is a small evergreen tree native to Asia, and the tree's ellipsoidal yellow fruit. The fruit's juice, pulp and peel, especially the zest are used as foods. The juice of the lemon is about 5% to 6% citric acid, which gives lemons a sour taste. The distinctive sour taste of lemon juice makes it a key ingredient in drinks and foods such as lemonade.

Lime

Lime (from Arabic and French lim[1]) is a term referring to a number of different citrus fruits, both species and hybrids, which are typically round, green to yellow in colour, 3–6 cm in diameter, and containing sour and acidic pulp. Limes are a good source of vitamin C. Limes are often used to accent the flavours of foods and beverages. Limes are grown all year round and are usually smaller and more sour thanlemons.

Grapefruit

The grapefruit (Citrus × paradisi) is a subtropical citrus tree known for its bitter fruit, an 18th-century hybrid first bred in Barbados.[1] When found, it was named the "forbidden fruit";[2] and it has also been misidentified with the pomelo or shaddock (C. maxima), one of the parents of this hybrid, the other being sweet orange (C. × sinensis). These evergreen trees usually grow to around 5–6 meters (16–20 ft) tall, although they can reach 13–15 meters (43–49 ft). The leaves are dark green, long (up to 150 mm, 6 inches) and thin. It produces 5 cm (2 in) white four-petaled flowers. The fruit is yellow-orange skinned and largely an oblate spheroid; it ranges in diameter from 10–15 cm. The flesh is segmented and acidic, varying in color depending on thecultivars, which include white, pink and red pulps of varying sweetness. The 1929 US Ruby Red (of the Redblush variety) has the first grapefruit patent.[3] The fruit has become popular since the late 19th century; before that it was only grown as an ornamental plant. The United States quickly became a major producer of the fruit, with groves in Florida, Texas,Arizona, and California. In Spanish, the fruit is known as toronja[4] or pomelo.[5]