Individual Differences : Personality & Values

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Individual Differences : Personality & Values by Mind Map: Individual Differences : Personality & Values

1. Model of Human Behavior (MARS)

1.1. Employee Motivation (M)

1.1.1. Internal forces (feeling. desire & drive) that affect a person's voluntary choice of behavior Direction - motivation must be goal-oriented Intensity - a mount of efforts toward the goals Persistence - effort need to be continous until goal is achived

1.2. Employee Ability (A)

1.2.1. The natural aptitude that is required from the individual to perform at work Abilities by virtue of birth Abilities developable over life span

1.3. Employee Role perception (R)

1.3.1. Beliefs & understanding about what behavior is required to achieve the desired results Understanding what tasks to perform Understanding relative importance of tasks (prioritisation) Understanding preferred behaviors to accomplish tasks

1.4. Situational Factor

1.4.1. Environmental conditions beyond the individual's short-term control that constrain / facilitate behavior Time People (Culture) Budget Work facilities Structure ( control, flexibility)

2. Type of Behavior in Organization

2.1. Counterproductive work behaviors

2.1.1. Voluntary behavior that potentially harm the organization

2.1.2. Eg - work sabotage, abuse of other & etc

2.2. Joining / staying with the organization

2.2.1. Goal-directed behaviors under person's control

2.2.2. Eg - Work satisfaction

2.3. Maintaining work attendance

2.3.1. Attending work at required time

3. Type of Employees Behavior in Organization

3.1. Task Performance

3.1.1. Goal - directed behaviors under person's control

3.2. Organizational Citizenship

3.2.1. Performance beyond the required job duties

3.2.2. Full commitment , beyond self interest

4. Personality

4.1. Def: Relatively stable pattern of behavior & consistent internal states that explain a person's behavioral tendencies

4.1.1. Defining personality using interaction approach Personality combines with situational approaches to influence behavior Some aspects of personality is changeable & developable (state),some aspects remain stable over time (traits) Industrialists believe that mist personalities are developable/ changeable, depending on exposure & the internal factors

4.1.2. Organization have personalities Possess personalities Organization possess their own dominants culture Eg => Disney (friendly personality) ,IKEA (chic & creative), Factory shop (economy & thrifty)

4.1.3. Measuring Personality Objective test - questionnaires consisting of questions asking the respondents to rate their responses to item. In the end, summaries their personality types (paper & pencil test) Projective test -ambiguous stimuli (drawing) - respondent report what they perceive & their answers serve as basis for the classification of their personalities based on major theories

4.2. Major Work- related aspects of personality

4.2.1. Big Five Personality Dimensions Positive traits Conscientiousness (Careful, Dependable) Agreeableness (Courteous, Caring) Extroversion ( Outgoing, Talkative) Openness to Experience (Sensitive, Flexible) Negative traits Neuroticism (Anxious, Hostile)

4.2.2. Locus of control Internal believe in their effort & ability External believe events are mainly due to external causes

4.2.3. Self-monitoring personality Sensitivity to situational cues & ability to adapt your behavior to that situation The basis is Self- Esteem (one's value of oneself) Ability to adapt to changing situational factors

4.2.4. Positive & Negative Affectivity ( Tendencies toward feeling good/bad )(Moods) Positive affectivity tendency to experience positive moods & feelings in a wide range of setting & under many different condition Negative affectivity tendency to experience negative moods in a wide range of setting 7 under many different condition Dynamics in workplace Decision making ( +ve affectivity make superior decision than -ve affectivity ) Team performance ( +ve positive affectivity function more effectively in group than -ve affectivity) Aggressive behavior ( -ve affectivity prones to passiveness, thus subject to bullying)

4.2.5. Personalities in Workplace Machiavellianism A personality trait involving willingness to manipulate others for one's own purpose Characteristics of high Macs Macs are not found to be correlated to success Narcissism Likeness to be the center of attention Characteristic of high Narcs Worst leaders Risk taking Ability to tolerate adversity & failure HR makes more fast decision, use less information than LR But accuracy of decision is the same for both HR & LR Proactive personality Think / act before others do, able to see upcoming risks more than others Identify opportunities ,take action, persevere until meaningful change occurs Best as change agents/leaders Type A personality The fast paced Bound to high stress, anxiety, fast worker More likely to be hired (showing high drive, competitive, aggressive , success motivation)