Laughter Out Of Place

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Laughter Out Of Place by Mind Map: Laughter Out Of Place

1. Black Humor

1.1. created by the poor to use against the wealthy

1.2. Examples

1.2.1. Zeca's death

1.2.2. Celina's death

1.2.3. Dona Beth's Letter

1.2.4. Gerson crying over son's death

1.2.5. Mariela trying to kill her husband

1.3. Advocates for humor:

1.3.1. Peter Gay

1.3.2. Sahlins

1.3.3. Bakhtin

1.3.4. David B. Morris

1.4. Significant role in power relations

1.5. A Form of Protest

1.6. Connection between laughter and absurdity

1.7. "bad taste" in humor

1.8. The poor are caught in limited circumstances where the only option is "absurdist laughter"

2. Author

2.1. Schooling

2.1.1. Cornell University

2.1.1.1. Mexico

2.1.1.2. Equador

2.1.2. University of California-Berkley

2.1.2.1. Brazil

2.2. Research

2.2.1. Many Ideas

2.2.1.1. Class Relations

2.2.1.2. AIDS effect

2.2.1.3. Women in Shantytowns

2.2.2. Hands on Research

2.2.2.1. Participant-observer in shantytown

2.2.2.2. Enter into people's lives

2.3. Writing

2.3.1. Protect Identity of People

2.3.1.1. Imprecise references to location

2.3.1.2. Use of Pseudonyms

2.3.1.3. Digital alteration of photographs

2.3.2. Style

2.3.2.1. Humorous

2.3.2.1.1. part of her Jewish heritage

2.3.2.2. Dark

2.3.2.3. Ironic

3. Brazil

3.1. Enormous Inequality

3.2. Export Oriented

3.3. Largest slave economy in the world

3.3.1. Triangular trade with Great Britain

3.3.2. Needed for Sugar plantations

3.4. Carnival

3.4.1. Time of Laughter

3.4.2. Time of Forgetting

3.4.3. Time of Remembering

3.5. San Paulo

3.5.1. Economically Advanced

3.5.2. Success in Coffee

3.6. Rio de Janerio

3.6.1. Principle importer of foreign goods

3.6.2. City of Contrasts

3.6.2.1. Poverty

3.6.2.2. Inequality

3.6.2.3. Racism

3.6.2.4. Violence

3.6.3. Second Largest City

3.6.4. Second Most Important Port

3.7. Social Apartheid

4. Schools

4.1. Has Class system

4.1.1. Public School

4.1.1.1. Poor Class

4.1.1.2. Mediocre at best

4.1.2. levels of private education

4.1.2.1. Middle Class

4.1.2.2. Upper Class

5. Resistance

5.1. Subtle

5.2. Unorganized

5.3. Spontaneous

5.4. Done with Humor

5.5. Females resisted by becoming prostitutes

5.6. Male oppositional culture

6. Class Division

6.1. Upper Class

6.1.1. Have their own black humor

6.1.2. Knowledge of the poor

6.1.3. Distanced misery

6.1.4. White Race

6.2. Middle Class

6.2.1. Dependent on others to do the work

6.2.2. Pay someone to do the manual labor

6.2.3. Be economically and politically involved in the country

6.2.4. Living Space

6.2.4.1. Division of an Apartment

6.2.4.1.1. Social Area

6.2.4.1.2. Intimate Area

6.2.4.1.3. Service Area

6.2.5. Believe they are doing the Servant Class a favor by hiring them as domestic workers

6.2.6. Mostly White Race

6.3. Lower Class

6.3.1. Servant Class

6.3.1.1. Slave labor at slave wages

6.3.2. Domestic Workers

6.3.2.1. Lowest Paying job

6.3.2.2. Filled by Afro-Brazilian Women

6.3.2.3. 14 hour work days

6.3.2.4. They Talk differently

6.3.3. Referred to as the "Low Others"

6.3.4. Industrial labor

6.3.5. Manual Labor force

6.3.6. Dark/Black Race

6.3.7. Working Class

6.3.7.1. Most often the victims of police violence

6.3.7.2. But they are the biggest supporters of violent police actions

6.4. Racial Identities

6.4.1. Black

6.4.2. Dark

6.4.3. Brown or Mixed

6.4.4. Light

6.4.5. White

6.4.5.1. Better Chances of Succeeding

6.4.5.2. More Opportunities

6.4.5.3. New node

6.4.6. Closed

6.4.7. Freckled

7. Violence

7.1. Experienced in different intensities depending on socioeconomic class

7.2. Falava Gangs

7.2.1. Often provide the only economic stimulus in poor communities

7.2.2. Seen as protectors

7.2.2.1. From other gangs

7.2.2.2. Of Children

7.2.3. They Rule with:

7.2.3.1. Violence

7.2.3.2. Fear

7.2.3.3. Terror

7.2.4. Alternative to low-paying wage labor

7.2.5. Give sense of belonging and identity to young men

7.2.6. Drug trafficking

7.2.6.1. Drug Chiefs are important local figures

7.2.6.1.1. Provide housing

7.2.6.1.2. Provide Cash to those in need

7.2.6.1.3. Provide Jobs for young men

7.2.6.2. Drug use in the poor communities not common

7.2.7. Dilmar - current gang leader

7.2.8. Ivo - previous gang leader

7.2.8.1. Lulu - corrupt police officer working with Ivo

7.2.8.1.1. He terrorized the community

7.2.8.1.2. Extorted money from Ivo

7.2.9. Alternate rule of law

7.2.10. Seen as necessary as they can do what police can not do

8. Felicidade Enterna

8.1. The People

8.1.1. Gloria

8.1.1.1. 14 Children

8.1.1.1.1. Soneca

8.1.1.1.2. Not seen as Children for long

8.1.1.1.3. Children grow up fast in order to survive

8.1.1.2. Domestic Worker

8.1.1.2.1. Earned $6 a day

8.1.1.2.2. Worked for Dona Beth

8.1.1.3. Primary informant

8.1.1.4. Her Childhood Resembled Slavery

8.1.1.5. She was seen as a strict (even abusive) mother

8.1.1.5.1. She made Lucas eat his own excrement after defecating in his bed

8.1.1.5.2. Tiago had to parade around town with a wet, urine-stained bedsheet after he wet his bed

8.1.1.5.3. Alexandro's hand had purposely been burned for stealing money

8.1.1.5.4. "She was cruel, in order to be kind"

8.1.1.6. She took children in, but also cast them out

8.1.1.6.1. She took in Lucas

8.1.1.6.2. She cast out Filomena

8.1.1.6.3. She cast out Fernanda

8.1.1.6.4. She took in Marta

8.1.2. Isadora and Zuco

8.1.2.1. Owned a bar and store

8.1.2.2. Part of the wealthy in town

8.1.2.3. Money a strain between friendship

8.1.3. Mirelli

8.1.3.1. Favorite goddaughter and cousin of Gloria

8.1.3.2. Never experienced childhood

8.1.3.3. Parents were alcoholics

8.1.3.3.1. Mother died when Mirelli was 6 years old

8.1.3.4. Part of FUNABEM

8.1.3.4.1. Dirty

8.1.3.4.2. Crowded

8.1.3.4.3. Abusive

8.1.3.5. Finished forth grade

8.1.3.6. Started having children at 14

8.1.4. Street Children

8.1.4.1. Represented in film: Pixote

8.1.4.2. Recruited to do the dirty work

8.1.4.3. Involved in illicit activities and drug dealings

8.1.4.4. Middle & Upper Class see them as bandits

8.1.4.4.1. Death Squads often sent to cleanse the streets of the children

8.1.4.5. Street work helps support their family

8.1.4.6. Very vulnerable

8.1.5. Pedro Paulo

8.1.5.1. Gloria's Son

8.1.5.1.1. Part of Red Command

8.1.5.1.2. Followed Bob Marley's music and politics

8.1.5.1.3. In Prison

8.1.5.1.4. Died on the Streets

8.1.6. Adilson

8.1.6.1. Gloria's ex-son-in-law

8.1.6.2. Murdered by the local gang

8.1.7. Marieta

8.1.7.1. Gloria's godchild

8.1.7.2. Pacifier part of her trademark

8.1.7.3. She had a growth on her buttocks

8.2. The Conditions of Felicidade Enterna

8.2.1. Dirty 10' by 15' shacks

8.2.2. Very few owned cars

8.2.3. Less than 100 houses

8.2.4. Small kitchens

8.2.5. Tiny bathrooms

8.2.6. Inconsistent water supply

9. Sexuality in Brazil

9.1. Important anthropological work written by males such as:

9.1.1. Peter Fry

9.1.2. Richard Parker

9.1.3. James Green

9.2. Public flirtation

9.2.1. Elaborate and beloved game

9.2.2. Showing appreciation for women's bodies

9.3. Woman write about it, but are less cited

9.3.1. Because feminist writing is viewed as too essential

9.3.2. Because feminist writing is viewed as too "sex-negative."

9.4. Metaphors of eating and food have sexual meanings

9.5. Men have basic needs that must be met

9.6. People in Brazil have a double standard when it comes to girls and boys

9.7. Rape in shantytowns

9.7.1. Not seen as acceptable

9.7.2. Sometimes provokes a gang to murder in retaliation

9.7.3. Men in the family try to protect the women in the family

9.7.4. But sometimes women are left without protection

9.7.5. Retelling stories of rape provide a way for "sexuality, violence, and female victimization to be dealt with by humor."

9.8. Marilia

9.8.1. Tried to poison her husband Celso with rat poison

9.8.1.1. Everyone thought it was funny that Celso did not die

9.8.1.2. Found humor and irony in the fact that nothing went right for Marilia - even when she tried to kill her husband

9.8.2. She had had a rough life

9.8.3. Her mother had died suddenly

9.8.4. Two siblings were in crime and drug trafficking

9.8.5. Spent 11 years moving between relative's houses and endured varying types of abuse

9.8.6. She lost her virginity to Celso and had a child

9.8.7. Celso courted other women and did not care for Marilia and their son

9.8.8. Everything had gone wrong in her life and everyone was rooting for her to have some success in life

9.8.9. Celso was abusive and unfaithfu and "hard to kill"

10. Solutions to the Problems

10.1. Call for action

10.2. Extend a democratic rule of law to the lower classes

10.3. Promote human rights

10.4. Need to completely reform the police forces

10.4.1. Need to end the human rights abuses and corruption within the police force

10.4.2. Police force needs to stop ignoring the parts of law they find inconvenient

10.5. Support a more equal rule of law

10.6. Consolidate democracy

10.7. Democracy needs to be filtered to all classes, not just the top classes while leaving the bottom classes isolated