Rwanda genocide

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Rwanda genocide by Mind Map: Rwanda genocide

1. why in news

1.1. French President Emmanuel Macron on asked for forgiveness for his country’s role in the 1994 Rwandan massacre

1.1.1. in which about 800,000 people, mostly ethnic Tutsis, were killed.

2. History of Hutu-Tutsi relations

2.1. Hutus

2.1.1. majority population in Rwanda

2.2. Tutsi

2.2.1. Minority population

2.3. troubled relationship since the colonial period

2.3.1. Colonialists ruled Rwanda through the Tutsi monarchy

2.4. Tutsis were appointed as,

2.4.1. local administrative chiefs and the ethnic minority enjoyed relatively better educational and employment opportunities which led to widespread resentment among the majority Hutus.

2.5. IN 1959

2.5.1. violent riots led by Hutus 20,000 Tutsis were killed many were displaced amid growing violence,the Belgian authorities handed over power to the Hutu elite.

2.6. 1960

2.6.1. In the elections, organised by the Belgians, Hutu parties gained control of nearly all local communes

2.7. 1961

2.7.1. In 1961, Hutu leader Grégoire Kayibanda declared Rwanda an autonomous republic and the next year, the country became independent Kayibanda became Rwanda’s first elected President . the Tutsis who fled the country formed armed insurgencies

3. What led to the genocide

3.1. In 1990s

3.1.1. President Habyarimana, was the president who was backed by France belonged to Hutu community Habriyama rose to power in 1973

3.1.2. the RPF, was led by Paul Kagame, the current President, grew in strength and posed a serious challenge to the regime of Habyarimana

3.2. resentment against the Tutsi

3.2.1. Coz of Peace agreement called Arusha Accord

3.2.2. Habyarimana was forced to sign it with RPF hence growing resentment among the Hutu militias against the Tutsi population who were accused of supporting the RPF

3.3. In 1994,

3.3.1. a Falcon 50 jet carrying Habyarimana and his Burundi counterpart Cyprien Ntaryamira was shot down near Kigali International Airport. The Hutu-led government blamed the RPF for the attack on the presidential jet The military and Hutu militias, unleashed violence against Tutsis RPF stand Kagame has denied any involvement in shooting down the plane says Hutu extremists ordered the attack to use it as an excuse for the genocide Repurcussions It was a planned extermination campaign by the government The militias, with support from the government, launched a premeditated violent campaign , .

4. How did the Killings come to an end?

4.1. the RPF, under Mr. Kagame’s command, captured Kigali and toppled the Hutu regime

4.1.1. While the RPF put an end to the Hutu campaign to exterminate Tutsis, the rebels were also accused of carrying out revenge killings during the civil war.

4.2. When it was evident that the RPF was winning, an estimated 2 million Hutus fled Rwanda,

4.2.1. mainly to the neighbouring Zaire (the Democratic Republic of Congo), where Hutu militias are still operating from

4.3. The RPF initially went about establishing a multi-ethnic government with Pasteur Bizimungu, a Hutu, being the President.

4.3.1. Mr. Kagame, a Tutsi, was his deputy.

4.4. In 2000, Mr. Kagame assumed the Presidency and continues to be in power till today.

5. Role of France

5.1. During the genocide, Western powers including the United States were blamed for their inaction which abetted the atrocities

5.2. France, which was then led by Socialist President François Mitterrand,

5.2.1. accused of acting as a staunch ally of the Hutu-led government that ordered the killings.

5.3. 1994

5.3.1. ,France deployed a much-delayed UN-backed military force in southwest Rwanda called Operation Turquoise– which was able to save some people, but was accused of sheltering some of the genocide’s perpetrators. Kagame’s RPF opposed the French mission.