History of Visual Communicationsns

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History of Visual Communicationsns by Mind Map: History of Visual Communicationsns

1. Heiroglyphics

1.1. Scholars believe that expressing words in writing is what influenced the Egyptians to make Heirogyphics.

1.1.1. It was a formal writing system that contained a combination of logo graphic and alphabetic elements. a logo gram is a visual symbol that represents ideas or objects.

1.1.2. The word "hieroglyphic" is derived from two Greek words: "Hiero", which means sacred, and "Glyphic", which means engraving or writing.

1.1.3. Egyptians believed it was important to record and communicate religion and government.

1.2. Scribes were students so they could learn to read and write.

1.2.1. Priests were scribes as well so they could read and write instructions on the walls and on papyrus for rituals. Papyrus: a substance made from reeds. wet reeds were placed criss cross over each other, flattened and dried, and then rubbed with flat stones until smooth.

1.3. Books of Death: set of scrolls for pharoahs and other important egyptians. They were instructions and spell to help find their way to the afterlife.

1.4. The French found a slab with inscrptions on it, that included three languages on it: egyptian hieroglyphics, demotic, and greek.

2. Cuneiform

2.1. Cuneiform was created by the Sumerians

2.1.1. Created to keep track of business transactions

2.2. Sumerians we a theocratic culture ruled by a priest king; skilled artisans who created vases, bowls, and other pottery; music was an important part of their life as well

2.2.1. Cuneiform was the worlds first language.

2.2.2. Chose to write it on clay tablets

2.2.3. They used wedged stylus made from reeds to make the impressions into the clay surface.

2.2.4. Began as a series of pictograms

3. Linotype Machine

3.1. Ottmar Mergenthaler was credited to making the Linotype Machine, however Clephane really created it and Ottmar stole it.

3.2. Stenographers were the first and most important people to use the Linotype Machine.

3.3. First Linotype Machine was in the New York Tribune in July 1886

3.4. Keyboard: 90 character keyboard, no shift key, all uppercase letters had separate keys from the lowercase, most frequent letters used were on the left. Black keys were used for lowercase letters, and white keys were used for the uppercase letters. The blue keys were used for punctuation, digits, small capital letters and fixed width spaces.

3.5. A matrix was a mold for the letter forms, and a slug was the assembled line of type that casts a single piece.

3.6. To create a a justified line of type you had to use the space band, which was a set of wedges.

4. Gutenberg Press

4.1. A printing press is a hand press. The ink was rolled over the raised surface of the moveable handset, and letters were held within a wooden frame.

4.1.1. The Gutenberg Printing press developed from screw type, from pressing grapes and olive seeds. The first book to be printed was the Bible and Fust and Schoeffer took credit for the printing of it.

4.2. The worlds first moveable type system was developed in China. Moveable Type is a system of printing that uses movable components to reproduce elements of a document. It is carved from wood.

4.3. Gutenberg thought that metal type would was better, because it could reproduce more quickly once a single mold was made. He created his metal type by combining lead, tin, and antimony, and melted it at a low temperature.

4.4. A matrix is a metal punch hammered into a softer copper bar.

4.5. Gutenberg was also credited with inventing oil based ink.

5. Cave Paintings

5.1. Altamria Cave

5.1.1. Marceliho Sanz de Asutuloa discovered this site.

5.2. Chauvet Pont d'arc

5.2.1. Elliette Brunell Descamps, Jean Marie Chauvet, and Christian Hillarie, all discovered this cave painting site.

5.2.2. The oldest known cave painting site.

5.2.3. Unique because: the walls were scraped of debris, had fossil remains, and a 3D effect by etching around the edges

5.3. Lascaux Cave

5.3.1. Most famous cave painting site.

5.3.2. Located in Lascaux, France

5.4. Cave paintings were used to tell stories and recount events,

6. Creation of the Phonetic Alphabet

6.1. Phoenician Alphabet

6.1.1. Letters started with constants.

6.2. The success of the alphabet allowed the trade culture of the Phoenician merchants to spread.

6.3. Long Term Effects: -widespread script -allowed it to be used in multiple languages

6.3.1. Greek alphabet is considered to be the first known alphabet because its given rise to other alphabets, which includes the Latin alphabet. The most seen change in the Greek alphabet was the adaptation of the Phoenician letter form.

6.4. The alphabet divided the class between royalty and the common man.

6.5. The Roman alphabet is also known as the Latin alphabet

6.5.1. It used two styles of lettering.

6.5.2. -a rigid, formal script was used for important manuscripts and official documents. -quicker, informal style was used for letters and routine types of writing.

6.6. New node

7. History of Photography

7.1. Scholars and philosophers used the 4th century camera obscura to observe light.

7.1.1. An obscura means "dark chamber" and it was a device that projects an image of its surrondings onto a screen

7.1.2. In the 1500's the room was darkened with a convex lens inserted into a wall.

7.2. In the 17th and 18th century, the camera obscura shrunk in size, to a portable box and reflected onto the ground instead.

7.3. Joseph Niepce created the first successful photograph in 1827.

7.4. Daguerre invented the first practical photographic process in 1839. The process was called "The Daguerreotype".

7.4.1. The process was when you exposed a light sensitive metal sheet, which created a direct positive image.

7.5. William Fox Talbot invented the Calotype process. It was a process when the subject was exposed onto a light sensitive paper, producing a paper negative. It is the closet thing to what we have now.

7.6. Archer is credited for inventing the Wet Collodion process, or also called Wet Plate Process.

7.6.1. A process where glass plates were used for the negative and time exposure was reduced to two to three seconds and cost was signifigantly less. Glass plates were coated with collodion, which is a colorless syrupy solution of nitrocelluose in ether.

8. History of Computers

8.1. Konrad Zuse was credited for inventing the first freely programmable computer.

8.2. Howard Aiken and Grace Hopper, designed the Mark series of computers.