Unit 1 Grammar: The Essentials

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Unit 1 Grammar: The Essentials by Mind Map: Unit 1 Grammar: The Essentials

1. 1. Tenses and concordance

1.1. Past Tenses: Describe what was done. In Methodology and Results sections.

1.2. Present Tenses: For accepted facts. In Introduction and Conclusions sections.

1.3. Future Tenses: Describe things that may happen in the future, such as additional studies.

2. 2. The article and the noun and adjectivation

2.1. Countable nouns

2.1.1. Singular: One instance of it. For example: "A magazine".

2.1.2. Plural: More than one instance of it. For example: "Paper (material)".

2.2. Uncountable nouns

2.2.1. Always in singular.

2.3. Nouns can be:

2.3.1. 1) Definite nouns: The instance referred is clear. For example: "The newspaper".

2.3.2. 2) Undefinite nouns: The instance referred is not clear. For example: "A friend of mine" or "An umbrella".

2.4. Proper nouns:

2.4.1. Not before proper nouns: "Alexander Fleming".

2.4.2. Not with lakes: "Lake George".

2.4.3. Not for most countries, except The United States, The Philippines...

2.4.4. Rivers, mountain ranges, seas and oceans should be preceded by the article "the": "The Amazon river".

2.5. Adjectivation:

2.5.1. Adjectives preceded nouns: "A large study was carried out for decades".

2.5.2. Adverbs preceded adjectives: "The sample was definitely confirmed".

2.5.3. Qualifying adjectives must be avoided in scientific writing.

3. 3. English passives and actives


3.1.1. How is the active voice formed? SUBJETC + VERB

3.1.2. Use: When the subject is an actor: "I write a letter".



3.2.2. Use: When the subject is acted upon: "A surgery was maded by the physician".

3.2.3. Why passive voice? It lets the facts stand on their own. Removes some accusations of bias (who did it, how many did it). Presents an ‘air’ (or feeling) of logic.

4. 4. Connectors: coordinate and subordinate sentences

4.1. We must use different connectors to link ideas in a scientific text.

4.2. Coordination: equal relation between connectors. Examples: and, or, but, for, nor, so, yet.

4.3. Subordination: Inequality or a relationship of dependence or limitation. Examples: if, as, when, because.

5. 5. Spelling conventions and accuracy

5.1. Do not make a mixture between American and British English.

5.2. Never use contractions in scientific texts.

5.3. Do not hyphenate Latin expressions or non-English-language phrases used in an adjectival sense.

5.4. Define abbreviations the first time they appear.

5.5. Avoid abbreviations in titles and abstracts, as well as at the beginning of a sentence.

5.6. Use a Dictionary of Scientific Terms

5.7. Do not use unnecessary commas.

5.8. Proofread carefully to see if you have left any word out

6. Concordance

6.1. The subject (person or thing responsible of the action) and the verb ( the main action in a sentence) are the two essential parts of a complete sentence.

6.2. The subjet and the verb are need to agree in number: singular or plural.

6.2.1. Use of singular verb for unit, amount, discipline or organization nouns.

6.2.2. Use of plural verb for individual members or components.