Laughter Out of Place: Rio de Janeiro

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Laughter Out of Place: Rio de Janeiro by Mind Map: Laughter Out of Place: Rio de Janeiro

1. "women of color offer themselves to the whites"

1.1. "mulata babes" offered as escorts

1.2. the Low Other

2. Introduction:

2.1. humor: intersection of race, class, gender, sexuality

2.2. favelas: shantytowns participant observation

2.2.1. separated population from the outside

2.2.2. "trapped"

2.2.3. laughter despite poverty

2.3. structures of power: organized, unpredictable

2.4. women

2.4.1. oral and inaccessible to outsiders

2.4.1.1. oral tradition ignored by elites

2.4.2. benefits from being a female anthropologist

2.5. conservative vs. radical

2.5.1. humor: allows for social strains to be expressed

2.5.2. brings attention to things that are otherwise unquestioned

2.6. circularity

2.6.1. interactions between classes

2.6.2. 'black humor' is understood amongst all classes

2.7. laughter: "small arms fire in the class war"

3. POWER RELATIONS AND HOW THEY ARE EXPERIENCED BY THE POOR

4. Chapter 1:

4.1. Poverty

4.1.1. people still have friends across all classes

4.1.2. every home still has a television

4.2. Rio: class/image

4.2.1. positive image of diversity

4.2.2. violent, exaggerated inequality between classes

4.2.3. carnival

4.2.3.1. reinforces class positions, gender, sexual hierarchies

4.2.3.2. humor is 'carnivalesque: makes fun of circumstances

4.2.3.2.1. "laughter reveals the fault lines in social relations"

5. Chapter 2:

5.1. Return visit to Rio de Janero

5.2. The letter

5.2.1. personal nature of other people's mail

5.2.2. knowing what was upsetting was beneficial to everyone

5.2.2.1. unclear personal boundaries

5.2.3. parental relationships

5.2.3.1. Beth is upset by her daughter finding independance

5.2.3.2. Gloria wishes her children were independant

5.2.3.2.1. poverty: burden of multiple children

5.2.3.2.2. children are meant to become independant

5.2.3.2.3. feels like raising children is another responsibility

5.3. occupation

5.3.1. making money takes priority over school

5.3.2. race and class effect job options

5.3.3. main job option: house cleaner

5.3.3.1. faxineira

5.3.3.2. work card

5.3.4. hard labor for little pay

5.3.4.1. barely enough to support a family

5.4. derogatory terms

5.4.1. humor: making the best of the names

6. Chapter 3:

6.1. relationships assumed based on race

6.2. racism is not publicly discussed

6.2.1. there is no race-based affirmative action

6.3. racism is similar to the rest of south/central america

6.3.1. only seems different when compared to the United States

6.4. marrying into money

6.4.1. means of escaping poverty

6.4.2. coroa

6.4.3. attaining a better life

6.4.4. racialized values of attractiveness

7. Chapter 4:

7.1. criminal life:

7.1.1. crentes: religious converts

7.1.1.1. hope to save people from a criminal life

7.2. "white daughter"

7.2.1. specify race even when it is not relevant

7.3. absurd nature of poverty

7.4. woman's choice

7.4.1. Pablo threatens if his woman gets and abortion he will kill her

7.4.2. if a woman has sex she should be prepared for the consequences

7.5. "the good life"

7.5.1. material luxuries

7.5.2. very few cases of social mobility

7.5.3. creates anger and resentment amongst lower class

7.6. two different kinds of childhood

7.6.1. nutured

7.6.1.1. priveledged

7.6.2. nuturing

7.6.2.1. poor: take on responsibilities

8. Chapter 5:

8.1. violence more present in lower class neighborhoods

8.1.1. visual signs of racial divide

8.2. middle class obsessed with the idea and fear of crime

8.2.1. this fear perpetuates violence

8.3. drugs:

8.3.1. seen as a luxury in the middle class

8.3.2. seen as a huge danger in the lower class

8.3.2.1. metido: involved

8.3.2.1.1. endangering yourself and your family

8.4. opting for gang life

8.4.1. only means of social mobility

8.5. insiders and outsiders

8.5.1. outsiders will 'dirty' the community

8.6. crime prevention:

8.6.1. cops are easily bribed

8.6.2. gives the illusion that the middle class is not involved in crime

9. Chapter 6:

9.1. poverty and sexuality

9.1.1. used to control and victimize marginalized populations

9.1.2. some things are said; some things left unsaid about sexuality

9.2. Felicidad Eterna

9.2.1. machismo naturalized and normalized

9.2.1.1. "this carnivalization of desire in largely, although not entirely, a masculinist vision of desire and transgression

9.2.2. no way to discuss sexuality:

9.2.2.1. poorly developed/taboo

9.3. sexual joking

9.3.1. harmless social interactions

9.3.2. verbal confirmation of the importance of sexuality in the culture

9.4. sex-positiveness

9.4.1. only a partial truth

9.4.2. defines social interactions in Rio

9.4.2.1. highlights underlying values of the society

9.4.3. self-promoted sexual image

9.5. homosexuality:

9.5.1. upper class model vs lower class model

9.5.1.1. upper: sexual identity defined by sexual object of choice

9.5.1.2. lower class: divided along both sexual and social gender roles

9.5.1.2.1. homens: men

9.5.1.2.2. bichas: worms

9.6. sexuality defined by your role

9.6.1. sexuality as a consumption metaphor

9.6.2. active role or passive role

9.6.3. defined by whether you are active or passive, not by what you consume

10. Chapter 7:

10.1. spousal abuse seen as a normality

10.2. the humor in rape:

10.2.1. the combination of sexuality and violence

10.2.2. causes an equally violent reaction

10.2.3. standard that women hold men to for protection: irony

10.3. dark humor

10.3.1. taste is not a neutral concept

10.3.2. able to laugh at the hopelessness of the situation

10.3.3. humor is only understood under certain contexts

10.3.3.1. class, gender, race, sexuality all decide this

10.3.4. Gives an understanding on how people experience and deal with their lives.