Explanations of Criminal Behaviour

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Explanations of Criminal Behaviour by Mind Map: Explanations of   Criminal Behaviour

1. Differential Association Theory

1.1. Sutherland 1939

1.2. Behaviour is learned through social interactions

1.3. Criminal behaviour was NOT caused by a lack of personal fibre but by the content of what was learned

1.4. Differential association

1.4.1. ratio of favourable to non-favourable definitions of crime

1.5. Evaluation

1.5.1. Strengths

1.5.1.1. Draw attention to the fact that by no means all crimes are committed by deviant psychophatic individuals for poor backgrounds.

1.5.1.2. It has been used as the basis of other thories (Akers,1977)

1.5.2. Weaknesses

1.5.2.1. Vague and untestable

1.5.2.1.1. does not specify how learning take place

1.5.2.2. Does not mention the individual differences

2. Bandura's Theory

2.1. External Reinforcement

2.2. Vicarious Reinforcement

2.2.1. observational learning

2.2.2. very influential

2.3. Self-Reinforcement

2.3.1. Pride you feel when you do something well.

3. Bowlby's Theory

3.1. Separation

3.1.1. inadequately formed superego

3.1.2. Antisocial behaviour

3.1.3. Affectionless psychopathy

4. Psychodynamic Approach

4.1. 3 Types of personality

4.1.1. Id

4.1.1.1. humans are inherently antisocial

4.1.2. Ego

4.1.3. Superego

4.1.3.1. children internalises thier same sex parent's moral standards.

4.1.3.2. weaker in females (morally inferior)

4.2. Defence mechanism

4.2.1. Balanced

4.2.1.1. channel the urges through sport

4.2.2. Unbalanced

4.2.2.1. e.g. bully weaker children to express violent urges

4.3. Explaination

4.3.1. Superego

4.3.1.1. Harsh

4.3.1.1.1. Law abiding

4.3.1.1.2. few antisocial act

4.3.1.1.3. New node

4.3.1.2. Weak

4.3.1.2.1. Selfish, uncaring, uncontrolled aggression

4.3.1.2.2. Cause: unloving/absent parenting

4.3.1.3. Deviant

4.4. Evaluation

4.4.1. Strengths

4.4.1.1. It is the only theory that addresses the importance of emotional factors in criminal behaviour

4.4.2. Weaknesses

4.4.2.1. some research indicates that females show a stronger moral orientation

4.4.2.2. Limited in the types of crime which it can account

4.4.2.3. Some neurotic conflicts may result from criminal behaviour rather than cause. (not support validity)

5. Learning Approach

5.1. Classical Conditioning

5.1.1. e.g. associate stealing sweets with excitement

5.2. Operant Conditioning

5.2.1. e.g. stealing brings rewards such as admiration of peers, increasing self esteem.

5.3. Social Learning Theory

5.3.1. Behaviour is influenced by anticipation and attitudes

5.3.2. People also create thier own environments to seek out excitement (criminal one)

5.4. Evaluation (Whole)

5.4.1. Strenghts

5.4.1.1. Highlight Nurture side of debates

5.4.2. Weaknesses

5.4.2.1. Apply simple principles to very complex and varied behaviour

5.4.2.2. Lack ecological validity (studies as evidences of the theory)

6. New node