Chapter 1 : Europe's Early Middle Ages by Jennica Wong

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Chapter 1 : Europe's Early Middle Ages by Jennica Wong by Mind Map: Chapter 1 : Europe's Early Middle Ages by Jennica Wong

1. The Mediterranean World

1.1. Environment

1.1.1. favourable climate & fertile soil

1.1.1.1. surplus of food-growth of towns and population

1.2. Greece and Rome

1.2.1. advances in art, architecture, science & technology, literature, drama, and medicine.

1.3. Sea

1.3.1. encouraged trade and travel

1.3.1.1. contact with M. East, N. Africa, W. Europe, (Asia

1.3.2. transportation

1.4. The Fall of Rome

1.4.1. 410 CE

1.4.1.1. CE: Common Era

1.4.2. Goths

1.4.3. Eastern Empire based on Constantinople

1.5. After the Fall

1.5.1. much of the culture is lost

1.5.2. Dark Ages in Europe

1.5.2.1. revival came almost 1000 years later

1.5.3. Barbarians: originally, a non-Roman person. "Barbarian" later came to mean "uncultured person", an insult.

1.5.3.1. german tribes

1.5.3.2. decline of roads etc.

1.5.3.2.1. travel dangerous

2. The Romans

2.1. culture florished

2.2. code of law

2.3. Pax Romana ( Roman Peace)

2.4. Latin is the common language through out the Empire

2.4.1. Latin: the language of Romans

3. The Franks

3.1. they were farmers

3.2. loved making war

3.3. conqured Gaul (now France) in the late 4th century to the early 5th century

3.4. wergild: man-money, that is, a person's value in money

3.4.1. Wergild needs to be paid to the owner of the property or the victim's family.

3.4.2. in case of murder

3.4.2.1. the family can decline the fine but can also demand the guilty person's death

3.5. had social classes

3.5.1. social class: the group that one belongs to in a society. class can be determined by money, role in society, or one's parentage

3.5.2. some were rich and some were poor

3.6. most men carried an axe called "francisa"

3.7. male and female wore long hair and loved jewlery

3.8. crime and punishment in the Salic Code

3.8.1. theft of a slave - 120-150 lashes

3.8.2. arson - slavery in the mines, banishment, or death

3.8.2.1. arson: intentionally setting fire to the property

3.8.3. theft - fine, torture, or death

3.8.4. breaking a betrothal - 65 solidi

3.8.4.1. betrothal: a promise to marry

3.8.5. touching a woman's hand - 15 gold solidi

3.8.6. cutting the hair of a free boy/girl - 45 gold solidi

3.8.7. grave robbing - 200 solidi

3.8.8. a person's value by law (wergild)

3.8.8.1. killings of a....

3.8.8.1.1. free woman of childbearing age - 600 solidi

3.8.8.1.2. pregnant woman - 700 solidi

3.8.8.1.3. boy under 12 - 600 solidi

3.8.8.1.4. girl under 12 - 200 solidi

3.8.9. solidi were gold coins

3.8.9.1. woprth $50-$100 in todays money

4. Charlemagne

4.1. came to power in western Europe in 768 CE

4.2. interested in rebuilding civilization

4.3. Christmas day in 800

4.3.1. crowned emperor of the Romans by Pope Leo III.

4.3.1.1. pope: the head of the Catholic Church

4.4. Carolingian Empire: Charlemagne's empire from about 770 - 814

4.5. ordered his soldiers to kill around 4000 Saxons/ day

4.6. hardhearted and merciless

4.7. established new schools in monasteries

4.7.1. encouraged the education of the Latin classics

4.8. keen interest of architecture

4.8.1. many stone churches and palaces built in France and Germany

4.9. succeeded in bringing about the rebirth of learning and arts

4.9.1. historians today refer to his time as the Carolingian Renaissance

4.9.1.1. renaissance: a rebirth or revival, especially of the arts

4.10. died at the age of 72

4.10.1. after ruling for 47 years

4.11. ruled the Franks

5. The Anglo-Saxons and the Celts

5.1. the Anglo, Saxons, and Jutes moved in

5.1.1. driving out the native Celtic peoples

5.1.1.1. Celtic peoples: a western European culture. The Scottish, Irish, Welsh, Cornish, and Bretons are all Celts

5.1.1.1.1. inhabiting most of Europe, from Spain all the way to southern Russia

5.1.1.1.2. in Britain, the Celtic language has disappeared from the 7 kingdoms established by the invaders known as the Anglo-Saxons

5.1.1.2. moved the Celts into Wales, Cornwall, and Scotland, and across the sea to Ireland

5.2. Anglo-Saxon England

5.2.1. they were farmers

5.2.2. skilled metal workers

5.2.3. great storytellers who created wonderful epics, such as Beowulf

5.2.3.1. epic: a long poem telling about heroic deeds and events

5.2.4. beginning of the 9th century

5.2.4.1. suffered from viking raids

5.2.4.2. Alfred the Great

5.2.4.2.1. early ruler of the Anglo-Saxon England

5.2.4.2.2. lost many battles of the vikings before he learned ho to beat them

5.2.4.2.3. after his death

5.3. pivotal role of the Irish

5.3.1. 5th century

5.3.1.1. St. Patrick

5.3.1.1.1. patron saint of Ireland

5.3.1.1.2. brought to the Irish both Christianity and a healthy respect for learning

5.3.2. monasteries became centres for learning not just Irish monks but also for scholars

5.3.2.1. Irish monks travelled through Scotland, England, and then Europe

5.3.2.1.1. spread the knowledge and Christianity

5.3.2.1.2. preserve the cultural legacy of ancient Ireland, Greece, and Rome

5.3.2.1.3. copied out all kinds of books even with the ones which they disapproved

5.3.2.2. books were carefully copied out by hand on sheets of dried sheepskin (parchment)

5.3.3. Ireland was the greatest centre of learning in Europe

5.4. the Celts

5.4.1. settled of the western and northern edge of the British Isles, had practiced a form of nature worship called Druidism for many centuries

5.4.2. fought bloody battles, kept slaves, and made human sacrifices

6. The Vikings

6.1. 855- a Viking force attacked and plundered Paris (the heart of Charlemagne's Empire)

6.2. war parties devastated whole regions in the low countries

6.2.1. (modern Netherlands and Belgium), Ireland, and England

6.2.2. roamed the Mediterranean Sea and attacked Spain and Italy and sailed through the great rivers of Russia to Constantinople

6.3. want plunder and glory

6.4. they travelled in swift longships that allowed them to strike without warning and disappear quickly before local rulers could raise a force to oppose them

6.5. their reputation

6.5.1. mercilessly destructive

6.5.2. kill or enslave every man, woman, and child they found

6.5.3. in England, they took payments called Danegeld from rulers

6.5.3.1. the French Monarchs paid them almost 300 kg of gold and 15,000 kg of silver

6.6. everyday life

6.6.1. most vikings were farmers and fishers living in small villages close to the sea

6.6.1.1. came from the region of Scandinavia

6.6.1.1.1. they began the raids because the farm land available in Scandinavia could not support the growing population

6.6.1.2. some people lived at the ends of fjords and wherever else they could find

6.6.1.2.1. fjord: a long, narrow, salt-water bay with high cliffs along its sides

6.6.1.3. men and woman shared the work

6.6.1.3.1. free viking woman has many rights of the law

6.6.2. Viking landowners almost always owned slaves, called tralls, who did heavy work on farms

6.6.2.1. thrall: the viking word for slave

6.6.2.1.1. no legal rights in Viking society

6.6.3. highly woodworkers and smiths

6.6.4. keepers of Viking history and legend were called skalds

6.6.4.1. skald: a Scandinavian poet who recited poems at formal gatherings

6.6.4.2. good memory and singers

6.7. law and government

6.7.1. vikings were great lawmakers, and they designed many laws to protect people and their property

6.7.2. laws were not written

6.7.2.1. Law Speakers instead memorized the laws and recited it as needed

6.7.3. anyone who could kill an outlaw on sight, will be entitled to some of his/her property

6.8. end of the Viking Age

6.8.1. 11th century

6.8.2. European monarchs grew stronger and learned how to deal with the northern enemies

6.8.3. English monarchs gave half of England, the Danelaw, to the Viking lords who then protected their new lands from other Vikings

6.8.4. Viking settlements

6.8.4.1. North America and Greenland were destroyed or dissapeared

6.8.4.2. the people from Norway and Denmark became Christian