Chapter One

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Chapter One by Mind Map: Chapter One

1. The Mediterranean World

1.1. Mediterranean environment had everything necessary to sustain large numbers of people:

1.1.1. Fertile oil, plenty of rainfall, and sunshine, and a climate that was moderate, neither too hot nor too cold

1.2. They made great advances in art, architecture, drama, literature, and science.

1.3. In addition, they became superb organizers, developing, such as systems as aqueducts to deliver running water, road networks, and military organizations.

1.4. The Roman Empire were really only and the same.

1.5. Mediterranean Sea itself formed a transportation route that encouraged people to travel widely to trade and to learn from each other

2. The Romans

2.1. The Romans admired the achievements of the ancient Greeks.

2.1.1. They copied and developed Greek arts and architecture.

2.1.1.1. They also built cities decorated with works of art, magnificent gardens, arenas, public baths, and theatres.

2.2. The Romans were highly literate people.

2.3. Roman scholars and poets wrote thousands of books, and great libraries were filled with ancient works from Greece and Egypt.

2.4. Latin is the common language for the whole empire.

2.5. THE FALL OF ROME:

2.5.1. the centre of European civilization, had been conquered by the Goths, a Germanic people.

2.5.1.1. The Roman Empire which had once stretched from Iran to Scotland and from Upper Egypt to the North Sea, had collapsed.

2.5.1.1.1. the Eastern Roman Empire, with its capital in Constantinople, remained strong.

2.6. AFTER THE FALL:

2.6.1. Greek and Roman civilizations were great, they were to be lost for centuries after the Fall of Rome.

2.6.1.1. Roman culture survive in isolated monasteries and distant lands.

2.6.1.1.1. Modern Civilizations- Ages later, Greek and Roman art, architecture, drama, literature, sports, mythology, philosophy, laws, and systems of of government.

2.7. WHY DID ROME FALL?

2.7.1. Small businesses suffered when Romans began using slaves to supply goods and services.

2.7.1.1. Romans spent more money than they should have on entertainment and expensive luxuries

2.7.1.1.1. Contagious diseases, brought to Rome by soldiers in the Roman Legions, killed thousands.

2.7.1.2. Rome was ruled by emperors rather than a government that respected individual freedom.

2.7.1.2.1. the empire was so large and contained such a wide variety of terrain, the empire became impossible to defend.

2.7.1.3. The empire grew weak because of repeated attacks by the Germanic peoples.

3. Charlemagne

3.1. He himself never learned to write

3.2. He encouraged education by establishing schools throughout his empire.

3.3. He started a palace school at court and invited the leading scholars of the day to teach here.

3.4. He was well-educated scholar

3.5. His method of converting the Saxons and other tribes was to present them with a simple choice:

3.5.1. they could accept the Christian faith or be killed. Under the circumstances, many agreed to accept Christianity.

3.6. After his death in 814, his empire fell apart

3.7. He was very interested in rebuilding civilization, and he had the intelligence and power to do so.

3.8. He created a single code of laws for the whole empire

3.9. He could be also hardhearted and merciless

3.10. He had the intelligence and power to do so

3.11. Christmas day in 800, he was crowned Emperor of the Romans by Pope Leo III

3.12. After a long war with the Saxons in northwest Germany, Charlemagne defeated them and insisted and they convert to Christianity.

3.13. Charlemagne ordered his soldiers to kill about 4000 Saxons in a single day

4. The Anglo-Saxon and The Celts

4.1. They began to settle in Britain and pushed the Celts into:

4.1.1. Wales, Cornwall, and Scotland, and across the sea to Ireland

4.2. The Celts had once been a powerful people, inhabiting much of

4.3. They thought of themselves as warriors

4.4. The Anglo-Saxons, like the Franks, were farmers.

4.5. They lived in small villages

4.6. Men and Women shared the hard work of agriculture between them

4.7. Anglo-Saxons had skilled metal workers.

4.8. Many examples of their highly elaborate sculpture and jewellery have survived

4.9. They were great storytellers who created wonderful epics

4.10. Alfred the Great, an early ruler of Anglo-Saxon England, lost many battles with the Vikings before he learned how to beat them.

5. The Vikings

5.1. A viking force attacked and plundered Paris, far from the sea, striking a blow at the very heart of Charlemagne's empire.

5.2. The Vikings were everywhere.

5.3. Their war parties devastated whole regions in the Low Countries (modern Netherlands and Belgium), Ireland, and England.

5.4. They roamed into the Mediterranean Sea, they attacked Spain and Italy and they sailed down the great rivers of Russia all the way to Constantinople.

5.5. The Vikings came from the north looking for plunder and glory.

5.6. They travelled in swift longships that allowed them to strike without warning and disappear quickly local rules could raise a force to oppose them.

5.7. Their raiding forces ranged from the crew of a single ship to large fleets of a hundred ships or more.

5.8. THE VIKING REPUTATION:

5.8.1. The Vikings were mercilessly destructive.

5.8.1.1. Before they began to settle in lands such as England and France, their common practice was to kill or enslave every man, woman, and child they found.

5.8.1.2. They were so savagely cruel in their attacks that many people thought they had been sent by God to punish the world.

5.8.1.3. Some monarchs and church leaders were so terrified that they paid the Vikings to leave their lands

5.8.1.3.1. In England, the Vikings took payments called Danegeld from rulers such as Ethelred the Unready.

5.8.1.3.2. Vikings effectively, but even they weren't able to stop the raids completely.

5.9. EVERYDAY LIFE AMONG THE VIKINGS:

5.9.1. Vikings comes from the people they attacked and plundered.

5.9.1.1. Whatever the Vikings did to the Anglo-Saxons had done to the Celts many years earlier.

5.9.1.2. Most Vikings were farmers and fishers living in small villages close to the sea.

5.9.1.3. Viking life was not all about all wars and raiding parties.

5.9.1.4. They probably began their raids because the farmland available in Scandinavia could not support the growing population

5.10. VIKING LAW AND GOVERNMENT:

5.10.1. The Vikings were great lawmakers, and they may designed many laws to protect people and their property.

5.10.2. The most declared an outlaw, which meant that the person was to be treated under the law "as if he were dead".

5.10.2.1. "Anyone could kill an outlaw on sight and then be entitled".

5.10.3. The Vikings was over forever.

5.10.4. The people of Norway and Denmark became Christian.

5.10.5. By the middle of eleventh century, dragon ships filled with warriors were no longer seen in the rivers and seas of western Europe.

5.11. THE END OF THE VIKING AGE:

5.11.1. The Viking age ended in the eleventh century.

5.11.2. English monarchs gave half of England, the Danelaw, to Viking lords who then protected their new lands from other Vikings.

5.11.3. The king of France gave the viking Rollo the province of Normandy to rule and protect,

5.11.3.1. Normandy means "Land of the Northmen".

5.11.4. Viking settlements in North America and Greenland were destroyed or disappeared.

6. The Franks

6.1. They were Germanic peoples.

6.2. Conquered much of the Roman province of Gaul (now France) in the late fourth and early fifth centuries.

6.3. They were farmers and they also love making war.

6.4. Most free men and women were fond of jewellery, and both genders wore their hair long.

6.5. "Frank" meant free. "Franchise", and English word for the right to vote, comes from this Frankish word.

6.6. THE MEROVINGIANS:

6.6.1. Merovingian royal family ruled the Franks for almost three hundred years.

6.6.1.1. Merovingian royal family was weakened by this constant infighting, and the kingdom fell into chaos.

6.6.2. The most successful ruler in the family, Clovis I, reigned from 481 to 511 C.E.

6.6.2.1. After the death of Clovis, the kingdom was divided among his children, who were not very capable leaders.

6.6.3. He founded the country of France and made Paris its capital.

6.7. THE LAWS OF THE FRANKS:

6.7.1. The franks had their own legal code, which differed greatly from Roman law.

6.7.2. They were called the Salic Code.

6.7.2.1. placed on a monastery value on every piece of property and on every person.

6.7.3. if the property was stolen or a person injured or killed, a fine called "wergild".

6.7.4. In case of murderer the family could refuse to accept the fine, and instead could demand the guilty person's death.

6.8. EVERYDAY LIFE AMONG THE FRANKS:

6.8.1. The Franks had social classes.

6.8.2. some people were very rich and some were incredibly poor.

6.8.3. The majority of people at this time (around 60 percent)

6.8.3.1. Were serfs

6.8.3.1.1. Peasants

6.8.4. They were considered free and not slaves, serfs, were not allowed to move away from the manor

6.8.5. the lords and rulers could steal serfs' crops at any time

6.8.5.1. because they were farmers, the serfs were at mercy of the weather.