Tense Recap - Contexts of Use

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Tense Recap - Contexts of Use by Mind Map: Tense Recap - Contexts of Use

1. Present Continuous

1.1. dynamic, ongoing action in progress now

1.1.1. Take the umbrella, it is raining.

1.2. temporary situation

1.2.1. She is running a reading club over the summer holidays. He is recovering in intensive care.

1.3. arranged plans / events -very likely to happen

1.3.1. John is flying back to Spain in a few days.

1.4. changes in a situation

1.4.1. Their English is improving.

1.5. iterative and annoying situations

1.5.1. He is always interrupting me!

2. Present Perfect Continuous

2.1. how long an action / event has been in progress

2.1.1. Marc has been learning English for 12 years. Ida has been writing a novel since September.

2.2. explain a current situation in terms of recent events

2.2.1. My hands are dirty because I’ve been planting trees in the garden.

2.3. not completed action which started at some point in the past and continues up to the present

2.3.1. I’ve been working on the project all day long.

3. Past Continuous

3.1. describe a scene in the past

3.1.1. It was 2 a.m. Music was coming from all over the place.

3.2. actions / events in progress around some time in the past

3.2.1. What were you doing at 12 last night?

3.3. an event in past simple interrupting an event in progress

3.3.1. While I was looking for the right address, I police car came around the corner.

4. Past Perfect Continuous

4.1. how long an action had been in progress up to a point in the past

4.1.1. By the age of 7, I had been playing piano for 3 years.

5. Future Continuous

5.1. action in progress at a certain point in the future

5.1.1. At midday tomorrow, Marta will be taking my exams.

5.2. planned events

5.2.1. Next year, John will be spending most of the summer abroad.

5.3. polite questions about somebody’s plans

5.3.1. Will you be staying at the hotel for two nights or three ?

6. Continuous Aspect

7. Past Simple

7.1. events / actions that happened at a particular time in the past

7.1.1. I saw him 5 minutes ago.

7.1.2. yesterday, last, ago...

8. Present Simple

8.1. habitual / repeated action

8.1.1. every, often, always, once a month,never, rarely, now and then, usually, sometimes, etc

8.2. general fact / universal truth

8.2.1. generally; Light travels at almost 300,000 kilometres per second.

8.3. fixed timetable /schedule referenced to future time

8.3.1. The train leaves at 19:45 this evening.

8.4. thoughts, feelings, states valid at the time of speaking

8.4.1. to be, to want, to cost, to seem, to need, to care, to contain, to owe, to exist , to stand for

8.4.2. to possess, to own, to belong

8.4.3. to like, to love, to hate, to dislike, to regret, to fear, to envy, to mind, to know, to think, to believe, to remember , to remember , to understand, seem...

8.5. temporal sentences

8.5.1. - Don’t forget to call me as soon as you see the boss. - When you finish the novel, you’ll change your views on politics. - We can’t start the meeting until the boss arrives.

8.6. conditional sentences

8.6.1. If you don’t put on a coat, you’ll catch a cold.

9. Present Perfect

9.1. recent events

9.1.1. just, already, yet , lately, today, this year

9.2. event that began in the past and continues up to the present

9.2.1. They have had this piano since they were 7.

9.3. past events having a result in the present

9.3.1. I have lost my keys. I can’t open the door now.

9.4. experience at an unstated time

9.4.1. ever, never, so far, always, over the years,

9.4.2. I have always loved chocolate.

10. Past Perfect Simple

10.1. event that happened before another event in the past

10.1.1. I wanted to talk to him, but he had already left.

11. Future "WILL"

11.1. impersonal statements about the future

11.1.1. The project will start next month.

11.2. predictions

11.2.1. I am sure you’ll love the place!

11.3. instant decision

11.3.1. This soup smells delicious. I’ll try some!

11.4. offers, promises

11.4.1. Don’t worry. I won’t tell anyone the secret.

12. Simple Aspect