The Gilded Age

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The Gilded Age by Mind Map: The Gilded Age

1. Politics and Corruption

1.1. Primary Parties

1.1.1. Democrats

1.1.2. Republicans

1.2. Waving the Bloody Shirt

1.2.1. Ulysses S. Grant 1868

1.3. Era of Good Stealings

1.3.1. Jim Fisk and Jay Gould: 1869

1.3.1.1. Black Friday: September 24, 1869

1.4. Rutherford B. Hayes

1.4.1. The Great Unknown

1.4.2. Tried to stop railroad strike

1.5. Whiskey Ring 1874-75

1.6. Credit Mobilier Scandal 1872

1.7. Boss Tweed and Tammany Hall

1.7.1. Thomas Nast Cartoons, exposed Tweed

1.7.2. Tweed Ring

1.7.3. Samuel J. Tilden leads prosecution, gains fame for presidency

1.7.4. 1971: New York Times secures evidence and Tweed is jailed

1.8. Bribes and Kickbacks

1.8.1. Stlalwarts

1.8.1.1. Led by Roscoe Conkling

1.8.2. Half-Breeds

1.8.2.1. Led by James J. Blaine

1.8.3. Mugwumps

1.9. The Forgettable Presidents

1.10. Garfield and Arthur

1.10.1. James A. Garfield

1.10.1.1. Elected as president in 1880

1.10.1.2. Faced problems between Stalwarts and Half-Breeds

1.10.1.3. Shot by Charles J. Guiiteau

1.10.2. Chester A. Arthur

1.10.2.1. Unexpected weapon of reform

1.10.3. Pendleton Act of 1883

1.10.3.1. Setup the Civil Service Commision

1.10.3.2. Made compulsory campaign donations illegal

1.10.3.3. Politicians forced to look elsewhere for money and turned to corporations

1.11. Blaine and Cleveland

1.11.1. Mudslinging

1.11.2. First Democratic Win in Presidency since Buchanan

1.11.2.1. Laissez faire economics

1.11.2.2. Caught between demands of Mugwumps and Democrats

1.11.2.3. Lower tariffs

2. Business Expansion/Wealthy Indrustialists

2.1. Laissez Faire Capitalism

2.1.1. Adam Smith's "The Wealth of Nations"

2.1.2. Social Darwinism

2.1.3. The Poor Deserved Their Status

2.1.4. Interstate Commerce Act

2.2. Forms of Business Organizations

2.2.1. Monopoly

2.2.2. Pool

2.2.3. Trust

2.2.4. Holding Company

2.3. Entrepreneurs (Robber Barrons/Captains of Industry)

2.3.1. Andrew Carnegie

2.3.1.1. Steel

2.3.1.2. Vertical Integration

2.3.2. John D. Rockefeller

2.3.2.1. Oil

2.3.2.2. Horizontal Integration

2.3.3. J. Piermont Morgan

2.3.3.1. Banking

2.3.3.2. Interlocking Directorates

2.3.4. Jay Gould

2.3.4.1. Railroad

2.3.4.2. With Jim Fisk, Plot to Corner Gold Market

2.4. Panics (1893) (1907)

2.4.1. Panic of 1873

2.4.1.1. Blacks were devastated

2.4.1.2. Debtors were most hard hit

2.4.1.2.1. Called for greenbacks

2.4.2. Panic of 1893

2.4.2.1. Gold reserve dropped below $100 million

2.4.2.2. Huge deficit

2.4.2.3. Borrowed $68 million from J.P. Morgan

2.4.2.3.1. Many criticized

2.4.3. Panic of 1907

2.5. Philantrophy

2.5.1. Andrew Carnegie

2.6. Vertical and Horizontal Integration and Interlocking Directorates

2.6.1. Vertical Integration

2.6.2. Horizontal Integration

2.6.3. Interlocking Directorates

2.7. Railroad Industry

2.7.1. Benefits

2.7.1.1. Government

2.7.1.2. Community

2.7.1.3. Businesses

2.7.2. Government subsides for railroad building (alternate square miles)

2.7.3. Corruption

2.7.3.1. Stock Watering

2.7.3.2. Bribing

2.7.4. Attempts by government to regulate

2.7.4.1. Wabash Case of 1886

2.7.4.2. Interstate Commerce Act of 1887

2.7.5. Transcontinental Railroad

2.7.5.1. Union Pacific

2.7.5.1.1. Irish workforce

2.7.5.1.2. From east to west

2.7.5.2. Central Pacific

2.7.5.2.1. Chinese workforce

2.7.5.2.2. From west to east

2.7.5.2.3. "The Big Four"

2.7.5.3. 1869: Wedding of Railroads near Ogden, Utah

2.7.6. Other Railroads

2.7.6.1. Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe (1884)

2.7.6.2. Northern Pacific (1883)

2.7.6.3. Southern Pacific (1884)

2.7.6.4. The Great Northern (1894)

2.7.6.4.1. James J. Hill

2.8. Southern Industry

2.8.1. Cigarettes

2.8.2. Cotton Textiles

2.8.3. "Pittsburgh Plus"

2.8.4. Preferential Rates from North to South

3. Urbanization

3.1. Negative Effects of Urbanization

3.1.1. Housing

3.1.1.1. Dumbell Tenement

3.1.1.2. Slums

3.1.1.3. Flophouses

3.1.2. Health

3.1.3. Working Conditions

3.1.3.1. Child Labor

3.2. Positive Effects of Urbanization

3.2.1. New Technologies

3.2.2. Cultural Benefits

3.2.2.1. Art

3.2.2.1.1. Music

3.2.2.1.2. Painting

3.2.2.1.3. Architecture

3.2.2.2. Education

3.2.2.2.1. Morrill Act of 1862

3.2.2.2.2. Du Bois

3.2.2.2.3. Chatauqua Movement 1874

3.2.2.3. Entertainment

3.2.2.3.1. Circus

3.2.2.3.2. Sports

3.2.3. Modern Attitude

3.2.3.1. Concept of Time Changed

3.2.3.2. "Wasteful" Attitude

3.2.3.3. Standard of Living Rose

3.2.4. Social Progress

3.2.4.1. Red Cross 1881

3.3. Philosophies

3.3.1. Social Darwinism

3.3.1.1. Horatio Alger

3.3.1.2. Herbert Spencer

3.3.2. Puritan Work Ethic

3.3.2.1. Colonial Philosophy

3.3.3. Gospel of Wealth and Social Gospel

3.3.3.1. Andrew Carnegie

3.3.3.2. William Rauschenbusch and Washington Gladden

4. Migration/Immigration

4.1. Internal Migration

4.1.1. Homestead Act (1862), Morrill Act (1862, 1890)

4.1.1.1. Homestead Act

4.1.1.2. Morrill Act

4.1.1.2.1. Hatch Act (1887)

4.1.2. Reservation System

4.1.3. Plains Wars

4.2. Periods of Immigration

4.2.1. Colonial Immigration

4.2.2. "Old" Immigration

4.2.3. "New" Immigration

4.3. Reaction Against Immigration

4.3.1. Nativism

4.3.1.1. Hostile

4.3.1.2. American Protective Association

4.3.2. Know-Nothing Party

4.3.3. Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 ("Yellow Peril")

4.3.4. Dawes Act of 1887

4.3.5. Gentleman's Agreement

4.3.6. National Origins Act (1924, 1929)

4.4. Theories of Immigration

4.4.1. "Melting-Pot" Theory

4.4.2. Assimilation and Americanization

4.4.3. "Salad-Bowl" Theory

5. Reactions to the Gilded Age

5.1. Urban Working Class/Labor

5.1.1. 1877 Class Warfare

5.1.1.1. Railroads cut wages by 10%

5.1.2. Women

5.1.2.1. Gibson Girl

5.1.2.2. New inventions = New Jobs

5.1.2.3. Suffrage

5.1.2.3.1. National American Woman Suffrage Association (1890)

5.1.2.4. Changed lifestyles

5.1.2.4.1. The New Morality

5.1.2.5. National Association of Colored Women (1896)

5.1.3. Unions

5.1.3.1. Yellow Dog Contracts

5.1.3.2. Black Lists

5.1.3.3. National Labor Union of 1866

5.1.3.3.1. Colored National LAbor Union

5.1.3.4. Knights of Labor

5.1.3.4.1. Haymarket Square Bombing

5.1.3.4.2. Coxey's Army

5.1.3.4.3. Pullman's Strike

5.1.3.5. American Federation of Labor

5.1.3.5.1. Association of non-political self-governing institutions.

5.2. African Americans

5.2.1. Booker T. Washington

5.2.1.1. Education for blacks but not advocacy against white supremacy

5.2.2. Du Bois

5.2.2.1. Advocated for complete equality for blacks

5.2.2.2. Setup NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) in 1910

5.3. Farmers

5.3.1. Farmer/Debtors: wanted inflationary policies (greenbacks, silver) so as to easily pay back debt with depreciated money

5.3.1.1. Crime of '73

5.3.2. Creditors: wanted deflation, not inflation (gold)

5.3.2.1. 1874: Convinced Grant to veto a bill to print more paper money

5.3.2.2. Contraction

5.3.2.2.1. Redemption Day 1879

5.3.2.3. Resumption Act of 1875

5.3.3. The Great West

5.3.3.1. "Great American Desert"

5.3.4. Impact of new technology

5.3.4.1. Large scale farmers tried banking, railroading, manufacturing

5.3.4.2. Single crop

5.3.4.3. Mechanization of agriculture

5.3.5. Cause of farmer's debt

5.3.5.1. Economy rebounded -> deflation

5.3.5.2. Income tax based on property

5.3.6. Grange Movement

5.3.6.1. Patrons of Husbandry- 1867

5.3.7. Greenback Labor Party

5.3.8. Farmer's Alliance

5.4. Native Americans

5.4.1. Safety Valve

5.4.2. Plains Indians

5.4.2.1. Tribes

5.4.2.2. Buffalo hunted to extinction

5.4.3. Battle of Little Bighorn

5.4.4. Sandy Creek Massacre of 1864

5.4.5. Battle of Wounded Knee

5.4.6. Dawes Severalty Act of 1877

5.5. Urban Middle Class

5.5.1. Muckrakers

5.5.1.1. Thorstein Veblen: "The Theory of Leisure Class"

5.5.1.2. Henry David Lloyd: "Wealth Against Commonwealth"

5.5.1.3. Jacob Rils: "How the Other Half Lives"

5.5.1.4. Theodore Dreiser: "The Financier and the Titan"

5.5.1.5. Lincoln Steffens: "The Shame of the Cities"

5.5.1.6. Upton Sinclair: "The Jungle"

5.5.2. Progressives

5.5.2.1. Roots in Greenback Labor Party and Populist Party

5.5.2.2. Women

5.5.2.2.1. Fight against child labor

5.5.2.2.2. Muller vs. Oregon 1908

5.5.2.3. TR's Square Deal

5.5.2.3.1. Control of Corporations

5.5.2.3.2. Consumer Protection

5.5.2.3.3. Conversation of US Natural Resources

6. Industrial Revolution

6.1. How was this possible?

6.1.1. Capital

6.1.2. Increased Workforce

6.1.3. American Ingenuity

6.1.4. Women

6.2. What was invented?

6.2.1. Telephone (1876)

6.2.2. Electric Light-Bulb (1879)

6.2.3. Skyscraper (1885)

7. Civil War Taxes/Alterations

7.1. Black Codes

7.2. Jim Crow

7.2.1. "Separate but equal" policies

7.2.2. Legal codes of segregation against blacks

7.3. Plessy vs. Ferguson

7.3.1. Allowed Jim Crow Laws to happen

7.4. Hayes and Tilden Compromise

7.4.1. Removed military from South completely