"Laughter Out of Place" Chapters 2 and 3

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"Laughter Out of Place" Chapters 2 and 3 by Mind Map: "Laughter Out of Place" Chapters 2 and 3

1. Brazilian Sexuality

1.1. Brazil's "exotic paradise" has been celebrated throughout its colonial history, as well as during Carnival.

1.1.1. The primary icon of "hot"sexuality in Brazil is the mulata.

1.1.2. It is claimed that during colonial times, European men and "Indian" women began the widespread "mixing of the races".

1.2. In the U.S. the male mulatto was perceived as a tragic figure or a "marginal man".

1.2.1. In Brazil, it was the figure of the mulata that gained recognition and attention.

1.2.2. The mulata, in Brazil, has become so closely aligned to an eroticized fantasy, it is the racialized outcome of the formulation of the "Low Other.

2. Hierarchies of beauty and social mobility

2.1. A woman in Gloria's class might be able to "overcome" her negatively valued African characteristics by performing as a seductress.

2.1.1. They know that Brazil is not a racial democracy, but they toy with the idea of an erotic democracy.

2.2. The combination of white and black characteristics creates mulata beauty, but white features alone can also qualify in a higher category of beauty.

2.2.1. African features with no mixture of white are considered ugly.

2.2.2. These categories defining beauty and ugliness turn sexual attractiveness into a racial matter.

2.3. Gloria's son, Felix, was her darkest-skinned child. He used to get teased about how dark his skin was.

2.3.1. The teasing and derogatory remarks made towards Felix based on his skin color, showed that to others it was a liability and can easily set him up for failure.

3. Examples of "laughter out of place" and the realities of upward mobility within the lower classes.

3.1. Gloria and Soneca found Dona Beth's daughter's letter to be extremely funny.

3.1.1. Gloria wants to be independent of her children, yet Dona Beth does not want to let go of her daughter.

3.1.2. Gloria and Soneca thought that Dona Beth crying after reading the letter was absurd.

3.1.3. Gloria joked that she was "running away from home."

3.2. Gloria's daughters found it difficult to find decent working-class jobs with adequate pay.

3.2.1. Result of deep seeded racial and class discrimination in Brazil.

3.2.2. Afro-Brazilian women receive the lowest pay

3.2.3. Domestic work is the occupation most filled by Afro-Brazilian women.

4. Private and public places

4.1. Three independent zones: the social area, the intimate area, and the service area.

4.1.1. All planned to specifically separate the classes from one another

4.1.2. A domestic worker's room cannot fit more than a single bed.

4.2. Gloria's work for Dona Beth included cooking for her son and his new wife, Nilda.

4.2.1. Gloria saw Nilda as an equal and despised having to work for her.

5. Limitations of academic capital

5.1. The school system in Brazil is "classed" from the very start.

5.1.1. The public schools are geared toward the masses and private schools cater exclusively to the middle and upper classes.

5.2. In Felicidade Eterna, children are expected to be productive and work at an early age.

5.2.1. Resulting in education, or the continuation of a higher level of education a low priority.

5.2.2. By contrast, children of wealthy families are usually prohibited from even entering the kitchen in their own homes.

5.2.2.1. Focusing on their studies are to be their main priorities.

5.3. Middle class families are always caught between the rich and poor.

5.3.1. They are in the position of being uncertain about being able to afford private school for their children.

6. Struggle to earn a living wage and Middle-classness.

6.1. Gloria did heavy-duty cleaning

6.1.1. Arrangement known as that of a faxineira (heavy-duty cleaner).

6.1.2. Often did not leave her employer's home until six or seven in the evening. Then make her way downtown to the bus terminal.

6.1.3. Besides all she went through, Gloria had amicable relationships with her employers and were very fond of them.

6.2. Gloria was in her late 40's when she finally began to earn enough money to position her into the working class.

6.2.1. This was the result of Dona Beth offering to pay her five times what she would usually earn per month.

6.3. The middle class looks at the employment of a domestic worker as a necessity and a form of identity.

6.3.1. Being a member of the middle class signifies that one is not a member of the serving class.

7. Poverty in Brazil and Rio Dejaneiro

7.1. Rio is Brazil's second-largest city next to Sao Paulo.

7.1.1. Rio's economy has been on the decline for many years.

7.1.2. There has been a long running struggle for dominance between it and Sao Paulo. Rio is losing.

7.1.3. There have been examples of gross poverty alongside images of the wealthy. Thus Rio is described as a city of extremes.

7.2. Large amounts of poor women who immigrate to Rio from neighboring states become domestic workers

7.2.1. They work without regular benefits or health care.

8. Race and Class in Brazil and the U.S.

8.1. North Americans like to think of themselves as part of the middle class

8.1.1. Often do not think in terms of class-based forms of power.

8.2. North Americans seem more comfortable talking about race, and readily engage in debates about forms of race but rarely about class.

8.2.1. In contrast, Brazilians are uncomfortable speaking about race and racism.

8.3. African-derived traditions in Brazil are usually adopted and absorbed.

8.3.1. Umbanda (an Afro-Brazilian religion) and the samba are examples which were adopted into the Brazilian main stream.

8.4. "Blackness", i.e. dark skin color and African features, are considered ugly in Brazil

8.5. "Brazil is different" is a slogan which Brazilians use to describe their racial makeup.

8.5.1. Brazil is closer to other parts of the Caribbean in terms of its construction of race.

8.5.2. Different only when compared to the U.S.