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DEMOCRACY slideshow by Mind Map: DEMOCRACY  slideshow
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DEMOCRACY slideshow

Democracy does not ensure good governance. It ensures a 'platform' for good governance. A DEMOCRACY IS ONLY AS GOOD AS ITS PARTICIPANTS - You and me.

The fact you can express dissatisfaction with your democratic government is proof that democracy is better than other forms where expression of dissatisfaction may lead to punishments either mild(warning) or harsh (imprisonment, exile or even death).

JUSTIFICATION - Why Democracy? Why not other forms of government?

Instrumental reasons

Intrinsic reasons

People sometimes say, 'I wish we had a king!' If we were to have a king, it would be on the assumption that the king would be all wise and all good. It would be about what the king thought of as good of the people. What about the wishes of the people?And what about his heir? Would he/she be just as good?

Classification

Procedural Democracy

Substantive Democracy

Types

Representative

Since direct democracy is not possible in large & complex societies, people take part indirectly in government through electing representatives. Representative Government is government authorized to act on behalf of people. (Hobbes & Locke) Representative government based on majority is the closest to democracy.

Direct/Participatory

1. Participation of every individual citizen in political decision making. 2. Relationship between citizens is one of interdependence and citizens are viewed collectively as sovereign. 3. Not only used in decision making, but also for protecting private interests & good governance. 4. Participation of citizens has an educative function 5. Fosters active citizenship & public-spirited character (Individuals take public interest into account and take decision for common good rather that selfish interest.) 6. Political institutions - school of political capacity In large societies, direct democracy is not possible. But in a strong democracy, the government must get the citizen more involved than in representative democracy by the following means: - strengthen local democracy- involve citizens in community affairs- social movements- civil education leads to a more active and politically engaged citizenry.

Deliberative

Deliberative Democracy values open & public deliberation of issues of common concern.- Assumes that individuals are free persons whose relationships have no clash or difference of opinion.- People influence one another through reasoned argument and persuasion.- Unlike direct democracy which requires people to be constantly engaged in decision-making, there is clear political division of labour between citizens & professional politicians.

Cosmopolitan

Cosmopolitan Democracy: Global governance.- Political interaction of transnational actors that solve problems affecting more than one country/region.- Decisions are made by citizens who are affected by them without a single hierarchical form of authority.- Global governance without world government.For ex: Environmental movement, Feminism etc.

Definition

Democracy IS

Is democracy the perfect form of governance?

No one pretends that democracy is perfect or all-wise. Indeed, it has been said that democracy is the worst form of government except all those other forms that have been tried from time to time - Winston Churchill There is no such thing as the "perfect form of government", but any other form has shown less desirable outcomes. No other form of government has been invented that administers a nation better than democracy.

Speed

Non-democratic rulers do not have to be concerned about deliberation in assemblies, majorities or public opinion. So, they can be very quick and efficient in decision-making and implementation. Democracy, however, is based on the idea of deliberation and negotiation. So, some delay is bound to take place. But it takes into consideration the will of the people. Decisions made democratically are more acceptable to the people and therefore more effective. So the cost of time that democracy pays is perhaps worth it.

Accountability and Transparency

The various laws, constitutional provisions, and internal regulations found in most democracies reflect the idea that those who work for the government, whether appointed, elected, or hired, owe a high level of accountability to the public. Accountability means that an individual should be able to explain and answer for their actions and may be legally obliged to do so. Transparency requires that the decisions and actions of those in government are open to the public and that the public has a right to access such information. We can see the proceedings of our Legislative houses on Live TV or get information from their websites. http://loksabhatv.nic.in/http://rstv.nic.in/rstv/index.aspx Moreover, our free press enables us to receive information about the actions and decisions of our elected representatives. In India, we have provisions like the RTI act that enables citizens to hold their elected representatives accountable and transparent. Non-democratic governments like dictatorships have no such protections or safeguards. Leaders in a dictatorship do not have the same incentives as leaders in a democracy to avoid violating the law and abusing power to their own advantage.

Legitimacy

Democratic governments are legitimate because they are elected by the people. They are not inherited like a monarchy or taken by force like a military dictatorship. They are legitimate because the elected government abides by democratic principles in governing, and thus is legally accountable to its people.

Corruption

Corruption certainly exists in democratic governments at all levels. However, non-democratic governments are not less corrupt either.

Economic growth

Data for the fifty years between 1950 and 2000 suggests that dictatorships have slightly higher economic growth. In most of the democracies, the economic growth is negligibly slower. But there are many democratic countries that are among the economic superpowers of the world. This shows that economic growth does not depend on the form of government only. Other factors also decide the trend of economic growth; like population size, global situation, cooperation from other countries, economic priorities of the country, etc. When we look at several other positive outcomes; along with a reasonable economic growth; then democracy is always better than dictatorship.

Economic Inequality

Increasing economic inequality is one of the problems faced by most democracies. Wealth concentrated in a very few people has translated into political power in the few and a misuse of that power. Rich people and big companies have more political influence. Democracies have to work towards better redistributive policies that lessen the gap between the rich and the poor

Social Diversity

No society can fully and permanently resolve conflicts among different groups. Non-democratic regimes ignore or suppress internal social differences. The ability to handle social differences, divisions and conflicts is an advantage of democratic governments. Democracy is not simply rule by majority opinion. The majority always needs to work with the minority so that governments function to represent the general view. It is also necessary that rule by majority does not become rule by majority community in terms of religion or race or linguistic group, etc. Rule by majority means that in case of every decision or in case of every election, different persons and groups may and can form a majority. Democracy remains democracy only as long as every citizen has a chance of being in majority at some point of time.

Dignity and Freedom

Dignity and freedom of the individual are the basis of democracy, as least in principle Even though women or people of lower castes are treated unequally, they have a legal basis to fight against inequality or ill treatment, because the principle of equality is recognised in a democracy. In a non-democratic government, such oppressed sections do not even have the legal basis to protest against it.

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