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400 words for the Toefl Food crops by Mind Map: 400 words for the Toefl
Food crops
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400 words for the Toefl Food crops


abandon (v)

to leave sb, especially sb you are responsible for, with no intention of returning, abandon sb (to sth), How could she abandon her own child?

to leave a thing or place, especially because it is impossible or dangerous to stay, abandon sth (to sb/sth), They had to abandon their lands and property to the invading forces, abandoned their attempt to do sth, They abandoned their attempt to recapture the castle., abandoned their idea of doing sth, Because of the fog they abandoned their idea of driving.

to stop having a particular idea, belief, or attitude, abandoned all hope, Rescuers had abandoned all hope of finding any more survivors.


abandonment of sth


adverse (adj)

negative and unpleasant; not likely to produce a good result, adverse effect on, They fear it could have an adverse effect on global financial markets., adverse change / circumstances / weather / conditions, They fear it could have an adverse effect on global financial markets., adverse side effects, This drug is known to have adverse side effects.

adversely (adv)

adversely affected, developments which had adversely affected their business

adversity (n)

a situation in which you have a lot of problems that seem to be caused by bad luck, in the face of adversity, his courage in the face of adversity, He overcame many personal adversities.

adversary (n)

(formal) a person that sb is opposed to and competing with in an argument or a battle, his old adversary


aggregate (adj)

[only before noun] (economics or sport) made up of several amounts that are added together to form a total number:, aggregate demand / investment / turnover, an increase in the aggregate production, an aggregate win over their rivals

aggregate (n)

the total after a lot of different figures or points have been added together, aggregate of, The three smaller parties gained an aggregate of 25 per cent of the vote, on aggregate, Manchester United won 2-1 on aggregate.

sand or small stones that are used in making, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate

aggregate (v)

to put different amounts, pieces of information etc together to form a group or a total, aggregate with, A wife's income is no longer aggregated with that of her husband


cultivation (n)

the preparation and use of land for growing crops, under cultivation, fertile land that is under cultivation, different methods of soil cultivation

the planting and growing of plants and crops, rice / wheat cultivation, Terraces for rice cultivation covered the hillsides., cultivation of, the successful cultivation of tobacco

cultivate (v)

to prepare and use land for growing plants or crops, The land around here has never been cultivated.

to grow plants or crops, The people cultivate mainly rice and beans

to work hard to develop a particular skill, attitude, or quality, Try to cultivate a more relaxed and positive approach to life.


fertilize (v)

to put POLLEN into a plant so that a seed develops; to join SPERM with an egg so that a baby or young animal develops, Flowers are often fertilized by bees as they gather nectar, After the egg has been fertilized, it will hatch in about six weeks.

to add a substance to soil to make plants grow more successfully

to stop having a particular idea, belief, or attitude, abandoned all hope, Rescuers had abandoned all hope of finding any more survivors.

fertilization (n)

Immediately after fertilization, the cells of the egg divide

the fertilization of soil with artificial chemicals


intensify (v)

to increase in degree or strength, or to make something do this, sth intensify, In June the civil war intensified., intensify sth, His mother's death intensified his loneliness.

intensification (n)

intensification of, an intensification of fighting in the region

intense (adj)

very great; very strong; extreme, intense heat / cold / pain, the intense heat of the desert, intense interest / pleasure / desire / anger, He took an intense interest in all religious matters., The President is under intense pressure to resign, the intense blue of her eyes

serious and often involving a lot of action in a short period of time, intense competition / activity / speculation, The job demands intense concentration.

having or showing very strong feelings, opinions or thoughts about sb/sth, an intense gaze / look, He's very intense about everything

intensely (adv)

He disliked Kate intensely.


irrigate (v)

to supply land or crops with water, irrigated land/farms/crops, The water in Lake Powell is used to irrigate the area.

irrigation (n)

major irrigation projects

obtain (v)

(rather formal) to get sth, especially by making an effort

obtain sth from sb/sth, Further information can be obtained from head office.

to obtain advice / information / permission, You will need to obtain permission from the principal.

obtain sth through sth, the results obtained through these surveys


photosynthesis (n) - photosynthesize (v)

the process by which green plants turn CARBON DIOXIDE and water into food using energy from sunlight


(technical) rain, snow, etc. that falls; the amount of this that falls

There is heavy precipitation in some parts of the country

an increase in annual precipitation

a chemical process in which a solid substance is separated from a liquid

calcium phosphate precipitation