Ring Topology

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Ring Topology by Mind Map: Ring Topology

1. In a ring topology, a token with a special bit pattern is continuously passed around the ring. If a computer wants to send a message, a computer catches the token, attaches a message to it, and then lets it continue to travel around the network.When its transmission is complete, the device passes the token along to the next device in the topology. System rules in the protocol specifications mandate how long a device may keep the token, how long it can transmit for and how to generate a new token if there isn't one circulating. A data packet starting from the originating node is examined by the next active node if it is addressed to that node. If it does, it is copied, otherwise it is regenerated and passed on to the next node until it reaches back the originating node and is discarded.

2. In a ring topology, all devices are connected to one another in the shape of a closed loop, so that each device is connected directly to two other devices, one on either side of it.

3. Difference between a Bus and a ring topology

3.1. Bus topologies use one major backbone to broadcast information to every device on that backbone, regardless of whether that device has asked for the information or not whereas in a ring topology, the load is shared by all nodes, and the token system is used to transmit messages throughout the network. Increasing the number of nodes in a bus topology has a greater effect on the speed of the network than increasing the number of nodes on a ring topology. Locating faults on a bus topology is harder than locating faults on a ring topology because when there is a problem with a bus topology, all devices are affected, however on a ring topology, it is easy to pinpoint the problem on one node or device because the token being passed will stop at the faulty device.

4. Node 1

5. Node 2

6. Node 3

7. Node 4

8. Token

9. What is it?

9.1. A ring topology is a type of physical topology in which devices are connected to each other in the shape of a ring or a loop.

9.2. Ring Topology is a network cabling scheme in which one cable connects all nodes and forms a closed loop.

10. Advantages

10.1. It is a very organised form of networking where every device has the opportunity to send and access messages

10.2. Even when the load on the network increases, its performance is better than that of bus topology

10.3. There is no need for network server to control the connectivity between workstations.

10.4. Additional components do not affect the performance of network

10.5. Each computer has equal access to resources.

10.6. The ability to generate data packets allows a ring topology to span far greater distance than bus or star topologies

10.7. Easy to troubleshoot - The problem when the ring network shuts down is that it can be detected easily, and isolated because of point-to-point configuration. if you locate where the information is stopping, it will pinpoint which device or cable from which the trouble is originating.

10.8. A dual ring topology can be used as a backup if the first ring fails.

10.9. Performs better than a bus topology under heavy network load

10.10. Does not require a central node to manage the connectivity between the computers

10.11. Easy to install and configure as removing or adding a device involves the tampering of only two connections (as each device is only attached to two on either side).

10.12. Each device has equal access to data transmissions

10.13. The machines on a ring network maintain the network by negotiating which machine will utilize the resources of the network before the others

10.14. Minimal hardware required - cheap to install and expand

10.15. Load of information is spread between devices, instead of concentrating it onto one single piece of networking equipment like a star topology.

11. Disadvantages

11.1. Each packet of data must pass through all the computers between source and destination. This makes it slower than star topology

11.2. If one workstation or port goes down, the entire network gets affected

11.3. Network is highly dependent on the wire or cable which connects different components. If the cable or loop encounters a problem, the whole network is affected

11.4. The higher the number of nodes, the slower the communication

11.5. Moving, adding and changing devices may affect the network

11.6. Slower than a star topology under normal load.

11.7. In order for the nodes to communicate with each other they must all be switched on.

11.8. Expansion or maintenance requires the shutdown of the whole topology.

12. Real Life Applications

12.1. It is mainly used in engineering and manufacturing industries.Today, the ring topology is seldom used.

12.2. They are also found in some office buildings ,school campuses, etc.

12.3. It is usually used in Local Area Networks or LAN's.

13. How does it work?