Instructional Design

Created by CHOI Lai Hang (2004120913)

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Instructional Design by Mind Map: Instructional Design

1. History

1.1. Instructional Media (Robert,2001)

1.1.1. 1990s Visual Media Films Slides Photographs

1.1.2. 1920-1930s Instructional Radio

1.1.3. World War II Instructional Deisgn Visual audio instructions

1.1.4. Post-World War II Instructional Television

1.1.5. 1950s Computer Based Instruction Use of micro-computer Multimedia Constructivism Use of Internet Knowledge Management

1.1.6. 1990s-now Web 2.0 Handheld Device Cloud computing

2. Learning Theories

2.1. Behavorism

2.1.1. Stimulus a& repsonse

2.1.2. Mind as a Black Box

2.1.3. Mind processes not important

2.1.4. Focus on observable cause and effect relationship

2.1.5. Students remember and respond

2.1.6. Provide practice and feedback

2.2. Cognitivism

2.2.1. Mind as information processor

2.2.2. Mind representations and mental models

2.2.3. Short-term, long-term and working memory

2.2.4. Thinking involves manipulation of representations

2.2.5. Students remember rules, pattern and strategies

2.2.6. Transfer of knowledge through cognitive strategies

2.3. Constructivism

2.3.1. Knowledge is constructed through assimilation and accomodation

2.3.2. Knowledge is inseparable from knower

2.3.3. learning is active process that involves personal discoveries

2.3.4. Social constructivism evolved from cognitive constructivism

2.4. Bloom's Taxonomy (Bloom, 1956)

2.4.1. Knowledge

2.4.2. Comprehension

2.4.3. Application

2.4.4. Analysis

2.4.5. Synthesis

2.4.6. Evaulation

2.5. Multimedia Learning Theory (Mayer,2003)

2.5.1. Multimedia principle

2.5.2. Split-attention principle

2.5.3. Redundancy principle

2.5.4. Modality principle

2.5.5. Segmenting principle

2.5.6. Pre-training principle

2.5.7. Cohernece

2.5.8. Signalling

2.6. Problem-Based Learning (Savery J. R., & Duffy T. M., 1995)

2.6.1. Constructivism Understanding is in our interactions with the environment Cognitive conflict or puzzlement is the stimulus for learning and determines the organization and nature of what is learned. Knowledge evolves through social negotiation and through the evaluation of the viability of individual understandings. Focus on metacognitive skills rather than knowledge

2.6.2. Instructional Principles Anchor all learning activities to a larger task or problem. Support the learner in developing ownership for the overall problem or task. Design an authentic task. Design the task and the learning environment to reflect the complexity of the environment they should be able to function in at the end of learning. Give the learner ownership of the process used to develop a solution. Design the learning environment to support and challenge the learner's thinking. Encourage testing ideas against alternative views and alternative contexts. Provide opportunity for and support reflection on both the content learned and the learning process.

2.6.3. Barrows' Model (Barrows, 1992) Learning goals Problem Generation Problem Presentation Tutor as the facilitator of independent, self-directed Learning

2.7. Collaborative Educational Learnring Tools (Bonk & Cunningham, 1998)

2.7.1. Learner-centered view Cognitive and Metacognitive Factors Motivational and Affective Factors Developmental and Social Factors Individual Differences

2.7.2. Constructivist view Cognitive constructivist Mind Raw Meterials Student Autonomy Meaningfulness and Personal Motivation Conceptual Organization / Cognitive Framing Prior Knowledge and Misconceptions Questioning Individual Exploration and Generating Connections Self-Regulated Learning Assessment Social constructivist Mind Authentic Problems Team Choice and Common Interests Social Dialogue and Elaboration Group Processing and Reflection Teacher Explanations, Support and Demonstration Multiple Viewpoints Collaboration and Negotiation Learning Communities Assessment

2.7.3. Sociocultural view Mediation Zone of Proximal Development Internalization Cognitive Apprenriceship Assisted Learning Teleapprenticeship Scaffolded Learning Intersubjectivity Activity Setting as Unit of Analysis Distributed Intelligence in a Learning Community

2.8. Constructivist Learning Environment (Wilson, 1996)

2.8.1. Moving away from the knowledge transmission model

2.8.2. Moving towards an active learner model

2.8.3. Enhanced through social interaction Visualization tools communication tools

3. Instructional Design Models

3.1. Linear Model

3.2. Spiral Model

3.3. Rapid Prototyping

3.4. 4C/ID-Model (Van Merrienboer, Clark, & de Croock, 2002).

3.4.1. Learning Task Backbone of every training program. Teaching activities for promoting attainment of any type of learning outcome Task classes defines simple-to-complex categories Learner support The given state that a learner is confronted with The criteria for an acceptable goal state a sequence of operators that enables the transition from the given state to the goal state a problem-solving process which may be seen as the tentative application of mental operations in order to reach a solution

3.4.2. Supportive information Bridge between what learners already know and their work on the learning tasks Mental models cognitive strategies

3.4.3. Just-In-Time infrormation Provide learners with the step-by-step knowledge they need to know in order to perform the recurrent skills Information displays Demonstrations and instances Corrective feedback

3.4.4. part-task practice Primarily promote schema construction, but the also facilitate compilation for recurrent aspects of the complex skill. practice item Overtraining

3.5. Oval Model

3.6. Top-to-Bottom Model

3.7. Instructivist Models

3.7.1. Drill and practice

3.7.2. Computer-based Tutorials

3.7.3. Intelligent tutorial system

3.7.4. Gange's 9-events of instruction Gain attention Describe the goal Stimulate recall of prior knowledge Present the material to be learned Provide guidance for learning Elicit performance "practices" Provide informative feeback Assess performance test Assess performance test Enhance retention and transfer

3.7.5. reusable learning objects

3.8. Constructivist Model

3.8.1. Learning environments

3.8.2. Technology as a tool in a learning activity

3.8.3. Inquiries and problem solving

3.8.4. Cognitive tolls

3.8.5. On-line collaboration and knowledge building

3.8.6. WebQuest and ActiveLesson

3.8.7. Interactive learning Objects

3.9. CISCO Reusable Learning Object Models

3.9.1. Reusable Information Object (RIO) Creation Process Phase 1: Design Needs Assessment Task Analysis Learning Objectives RIO Types Phase 2: Development Build RLO Build RIOs Alpha Review Beta Review Phase 3: Delivery Dynamic Packaging Publish CD-ROM Conduct ITL Phase 4: Evaluation Level1: Survey Level2: Assessment Level3 : Transfer Level4 :Impact

3.9.2. Building RLO Overview Summary Assessment

3.9.3. building RIOs Content Items 1. Concept 2. Fact 3. Procedure 4. Process 5. Principal Practice Items Assessment Items Cognitive Level Merrill's Taxonomy Bloom's Taxonomy

3.10. Case-based Reasoning (Schank, Berman, & MacPhersoon, 1999)

3.10.1. The Learning Goals

3.10.2. Misison

3.10.3. Cover Story

3.10.4. The Role

3.10.5. Activities

3.10.6. Resources

3.10.7. Feedback

3.11. Kolb Learning Cycle

3.12. Dufour's Learning by Doing Model

3.13. Jonassen's Constructivist Learning Environment

3.13.1. Logical Problmes

3.13.2. Algorithms

3.13.3. Story Problems

3.13.4. Rule-Using Problems

3.13.5. Decision-Making Problems

3.13.6. Troubleshooting Problems

3.13.7. Diagnosis-Solution Problems

3.13.8. Strategic Performance

3.13.9. Situated Case-Policy Problems

3.13.10. Design Problems

3.13.11. Dilemmas

3.14. Invoking ID practice via the Denny Clifford case (Ertner P. A. & Quinn J., 2007)

3.14.1. Suggest strategies for circumventing or eliminating communication barriers.

3.14.2. Describe how the identified resources can be re-purposed to address specific instructional design needs.

3.14.3. Recommend appropriate media, delivery mode, and instructional strategies for meeting the specific needs of a widely dispersed target audience.

3.14.4. Draft an instructional strategy for a sample lesson that introduces teachers to a constructivist approach to science teaching.

3.14.5. Suggest strategies to facilitate a mutually beneficial relationship between people with behavioral and constructivist points of view.

4. Handheld Device (Patten, Sánchez & Tangney, 2006)

4.1. Educational Application

4.1.1. Collaborative

4.1.2. Constructional

4.1.3. Contextual

4.2. Functional Framework

4.2.1. Administration Little Pedagogy

4.2.2. Reference Instructional

4.2.3. Interactive Little Pedagogy Instructional Behavorist

4.2.4. Microworld Constructionist

4.2.5. Data Collection Little Pedagogy Conetextual Reflective Constructivist

4.2.6. Location Aware Little Pedagogy Behaviorist Constructivist Contextual

4.2.7. Collaborative Collaborative Contextual Constructivist Constructionist

5. Reflection

6. Web 2.0 (Churchill, 2007)

6.1. What is Web 2.0?

6.1.1. Paradigm shift

6.1.2. Read-write web

6.1.3. User control of information

6.1.4. New forms of expression

6.1.5. Web as a point of presence

6.1.6. Internet-mediated social / collective activities

6.1.7. Web as a platform

6.1.8. Rich user experiences

6.1.9. Media revolution

6.2. Web 2.0 tools

6.2.1. Blogs picasa Blogger edublogs Qumana

6.2.2. Wikies Wikipedia Uncyclopedia TWiki Wikispaces

6.2.3. Social Bookmarking Clipmarks

6.2.4. Social Repositories Youtube flickr slideshare

6.2.5. RSS Feeds

6.2.6. Podcasting Itunes English Pod

6.2.7. "Web as a platform" applications Google yackpack Airset

6.2.8. Open Source Wikipedia

6.2.9. Mashups Google Maps Amazon eBay

6.2.10. Social Networking facebook myspace twitter

6.2.11. Possibilities for application in support of research activities User generated content Collaboration Social Networking Beyond a single device

6.3. Educational Web 2.0

6.3.1. New forms of assessment such as digital portofolios

6.3.2. Use of Internet-mediated social learning spaces and new forms of collaborative learning

6.3.3. New models and methods for design of learning objects and other kinds of digital curriculum

6.3.4. New generations of learning management systems

6.4. Social Networking as Educational Tools (Mason & Rennie, 2008)

6.4.1. Chararcteristics Profile Traversable, publicly articulated social network Semi-persistent public commnets

6.4.2. Distributed learning No panacea Pedagogy first Initial induction Need to be serious

6.4.3. Emerging Design vs traditional top-down models

6.4.4. Assessment for Learning vs Assessment for Learning

7. Components

7.1. Analysis

7.1.1. Define Current situation Desired situation Gap which exists between desired situation and how to get there How to achieve the desired situation Identify production and market strategy What benefits will the product bring to the end user How to reduce the overall production risk and increase return on investment

7.1.2. Need Analysis

7.1.3. Audience Analysis

7.1.4. Environment Analysis

7.1.5. Content Analysis

7.1.6. System Analysis

7.1.7. Feasibility Analysis

7.1.8. Risk Analysis

7.1.9. Project Proposal

7.1.10. Conduct Analysis Interviews Meet with a client Surveys Observation Focus Group Research

7.2. Design

7.2.1. Define goals

7.2.2. Conduct instructional analysis

7.2.3. Analyze learners and context

7.2.4. Write performance / learning objectives Performance objectives Instructional objectives Behavioral objectives Specific instructional objectives learning outcomes

7.2.5. Development assessment strategies Formative Assessment Problem solving self assessment peer assessment Learning portofolio Summative Assessment End of Chapter Test Multiple Choice True of False Short Answer Essay

7.2.6. Development instructional strategies

7.2.7. Arrange instructional events

7.2.8. Develop a set of Flowcharts

7.2.9. Development Storybaords Evaluating Storyboards by various people Project Team Editor Client Content mater expert Representative of a real user Evaluating Storyboards for content accuracy, appropriateness, completeness, coverage Media, presentation, interface, interaction and treatment Pedagogical quality/ Instructional design Technical issues

7.2.10. Write Design Specifications Document Screen area presentation Authoring platform Quality and format of graphics, videos, audio and other media Pedagogical consideration

7.2.11. Develop a prototype Interface Design Layout Size of display area Resolution Color Interaction Design Buttons Hot-spot areas Clickable objects Key press and shortcuts Pull-down menus Text entry Drag & Drop sliders, dialer Check boxes, Radio boxes, Lists Haptic devices Presentation Design Information design General treatments Media design Typography Evaluation by a client by real users by design team by development team Sign-off

7.2.12. Review and Evaluate Project Documentation

7.3. Development

7.4. Implementation

7.5. Evaluation

7.6. Systematic Design of Instruction (Dick, Carey L., & Carey J. O. ,2001)

7.6.1. Assess Needs to Identify Goal(s)

7.6.2. Conduct Instructional Analysis

7.6.3. Analysis Learners and context

7.6.4. Write Performance Objectives

7.6.5. Develop Assessment Instruments

7.6.6. Develop Instructional Strategy

7.6.7. Develop and select Instructional Materials

7.6.8. Develop and Construct Formative Evaluation of Instruction

7.6.9. Design and Conduct Summative Evaluation

8. References

8.1. Reiser, R. A. (2001). A history of instructional design and technology: Part I:A history of instructional media. ETR&D, 49(1), 53-64.

8.2. Reiser, R. A. (2001). A history of instructional design and technology: Part II: A history of instructional design. ETR&D, 49(2), 57-67.

8.3. Mergel, B (1998). Instructional design & learning theories.

8.4. Chapter 10 “The events of instruction” from Gagne, R., Briggs, L. J., & Wager, W. W. (1992). Principles of instructional design. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace College Publishers.

8.5. Cisco. (1999). Cisco Systems reusable information object strategy:definition, creation overview, and guidelines. Cisco Systems, Inc.

8.6. Mayer, E. R. (2003). The promise of multimedia learning: using the same instructional design methods across different media. Learning & Instruction, 13, 125-139.

8.7. Van Merrienboer, J. J., Clark, R. E., & de Croock, M. B. (2002). Blueprintsfor Complex Learning: The 4C/ID-Model. ETR&D, 50(2), 39-64.

8.8. Jonassen, D. (1999). Designing constructivist learning environments. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory, volume 2 (pp. 215—239). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

8.9. Savery, J. R., & Duffy, T. M. (1995). Problem based learning: an instructional model and its constructivist framework. Educational Technology, 35(5), 31-38

8.10. Oliver, R., & Herrington, J. (2001). Teaching and learning on-line: a beginner’s guide to e-learning and e-teaching in higher education. Perth, Australia: Edith Cowan University.

8.11. Churchill, D. (2006). Student-centered learning design: key components, technology role and frameworks for integration. Synergy, 4(1), 18-­‐28.

8.12. Bonk, C. J., & Cunningham, D. J. (1998). Searching for learner-centered, constructivist, and sociocultural components of collaborative educational learning tools. In C.J. Bonk, & K.S. Kind (Eds.), Electronic collaborators: Learner-centered technologies for literacy, apprenticeship, and discourse, (pp. 25-50). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

8.13. Jonassen, H. D. (2006). On the role of concepts in learning and instructional design. ETR&D, 54(2), 177-196.

8.14. Churchill, D. (2007). Web 2.0 and possibilities for educational applications.Educational Technology, 47(2), 24-29.

8.15. Patten, B., Sánchez, I. A., & Tangney, B. (2006). Designing collaborative, constructionist and contextual applications for handheld devices. Computers& Education, 46(3), 294-308.

8.16. Dick, W., Carey, L., & Carey, J. O. (2001). The systematic design of instruction. New York, NY: Longman.

8.17. Ertmer, P. A., & Quinn, J. (2007). The ID casebook: case studies in instructional design. Columbus, OH: Pearson.

8.18. Wilson, B. G. (1996). Constructivist learning Environments: case studies in instructional design. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Education Technology Publications

8.19. Merrill, D. M., Tennyson, R. D., & Posey, L. O. (1992). Teaching concepts: an instructional design guide. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.