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Acids And Bases by Mind Map: Acids And Bases
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Acids And Bases


Examples of bases

Sodium Oxide

Potassium Oxide

Magnesium Oxide

Sodium Hydroxide

Potassium Hydroxide

Magnesium Hydroxide


A base is defined as a substance that contains hydroxide ions (OHˉ) when dissolved in water.

A base can also be defined as a substance which accepts oxide or hydroxide ions.


Bases have different solubility

Most are insoluble in water, Copper (II) Oxide, Lead (II) oxide

Bases which are soluble are called alkalis., Sodium hydroxide, Calcium hydroxide


Alkalis have a bitter taste and soapy feel

Alkalis turn red litmus blue.

Alkalis only show their alkaline properties when dissolved in water, This is because it is the hydroxide ions that give alkalis its properties

Alkalis, like acids, are also good electrical conductors


Neutralisation, Acid + Alkali => Salt + Water, E.g. Sodium Hydroxide + Sulfuric Acid =>Sodium Sulfate + Water

Alkali + Ammonium salt => Ammonia + Water + Salt

Example: Sodium hydroxide + Ammonium Chloride=> Sodium Chloride + water + Ammonia, Test for Ammonia gas: If a colourless, pungent gas that turns damp red litmus paper blue is produced, the gas is ammonia.

Alkali(of metal A) + salt(of metal B) => Metal B hydroxide + salt(of metal A), Sodium hydroxide + Copper(II) sulfate=> sodium sulfate + Copper(II) hydroxide, If metal B hydroxide is soluble, reaction will not take place


Ammonia Solution, Window cleaning solutions, Fertilisers

Sodium Hydroxide, Soaps and Detergents, Industrial-cleaning detergents

Magnesium hydroxide, Toothpaste, Antacids

Calcium oxide, Neutralizing acidic soil, To make iron, concrete and cement



An acid is a substance that dissociates to form hydrogen ions when dissolved in water.


Organic acids contain carbon and are found in living things., Lacitc Acid, Citric Acid, Ethanoic Acid

Inorganic acids do not contain carbon and are commonly found in science laborities., Hydrochloric Acid, Sulfuric Acid


Acids reacts with certain metals to form a salt and hydrogen gas, When a reactive metal, e.g. magnesium, is added to an inorganic acid like hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid, effervescense will be observed., The reactive metal will dissolve and the reaction will give out heat., The bubbles of gas produced contain hydrogen gas., Hydrogen gas can be tested by inserting a lighted splint into a test tube. If the gas is hydrogen, the splint will extinguish with a 'pop' sound., Unreactive metals like copper and silver will not react with acids

Acids react with all carbonates to produce a salt, water and carbon dioxide gas., When a carbonate compound, e.g. calcium carbonate, is added to an inorganic acid like hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid, effervescence will be observed., The bubbles of gas produced contain carbon dioxide gas., Carbon dioxide can be tested for by bubbling the gas into calcium hydroxide solution, also known as limewater. If the gas is carbon dioxide, a white precipitate will be observed in the calcium hydroxide solution.

Acids react with metal oxides/hydroxides to give a salt and water, Types of oxides, Acidic Oxides, Are oxides of non-metals, Most acidic oxides are soluble in water and will give an acid(e.g. carbon dioxide dissolves in water to give carbonic acid), Basic Oxides, Are oxides of metals, Most basic oxides are insoluble in water except for a few(e.g. sodium oxide, potassium oxide), Amphoteric Oxides, Are metallic oxides that react with both acids and bases to form a salt and water, Examples:Aluminium oxide, Lead(II) oxide, Zinc oxide, Neutral Oxides, Shows neither basic or acidic properties, Examples: Water, Carbon monoxide and nitric oxide


Acids taste sour.

Acids turn blue litmus red.

Acids are good electrolytes i.e. they are good conductors of electricity., This is because the hydrogen ions are able to move about freely in the acid and thus can carry the electric charge


Hydrochloric Acid, Removes Rust

Sulfuric Acid, Used in car batteries

Nitric Acid, Making explosives, Fertilizers