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Chemical Bonding by Mind Map: Chemical Bonding
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Chemical Bonding

Ionic Bonding

Formed between a metal and a non-metal

Metal atoms lose valence electrons

Non-metal atoms gain valence electrons

Loss/gain of electrons

To attain octet configuration

Between cations and anions

Compounds formed

Solid at room temperature

High melting point and boiling point, Strong force of attraction between molecules

Forms positive and negative ions

Conduct electricity when molten or aqueous, Dissociation of compound in solutions allows free movement of electrons

Giant ionic lattice, Electrostatic interaction between positive and negative ions

Usually water soluble

Simple or complex ions

Simple ions, Formed when an atom of an element loses or accepts electrons to form a charged particle

Complex ions, Is a charged particle that consists of more than 1 atom of 1 or more elements

Covalent Bonding

Formed between 2 non-metals

Both atoms need to gain valence atoms, Both atoms share valence electrons instead of trading

Sharing of electrons

"Shared" electrons travel around the nuclei of both atoms, To attain octet configuration

Simple molecular

Compounds formed, Often liquid or gas at room temperature, Low melting point and boiling point, Weak intermolecular forces, Exist as neutral molecules (No ions), Do not conduct electricity when molten or aqueous, Compound remains as same molecule in water and does not allow for free movement of electrons, Can form multiple bonds, Equals to eight minus group number, Tend to be more flammable than ionic compounds, Carbon and Hydrogen have similar electronegativities and are found together in most covalent compounds, Carbon and Hydrogen react to form Carbon Dioxide and water when heated with Oxygen gas

Macromolecular

Compounds formed, High melting and boiling point, Strong covalent bonds in structure

Definition

Process where atoms combine to form molecules

Each atom attains octet configuration

Metallic Bonding

Characteristics

Malleable, Layers of atoms can slide easily over one another

Hardness, Pure metals are weak and soft, Alloys are much harder, Alloys are mixtures of metals, Orderly arrangement disrupted by atoms of another metal, Layers no longer slide over each other easily

Good electrical conductors, Electric current consists of moving electrons

High melting and boiling point, Molecular bonds are strong and hard to break

Metal consists of orderly arrangement of positive metal ions

Electrons free to move about between ions

Surrounded by sea of electrons