Learning Theories

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Learning Theories by Mind Map: Learning Theories

1. TPACK

1.1. Teachers have three kinds of knowledge

1.1.1. Pedagogical knowledge

1.1.2. Technological Knowledge

1.1.2.1. The intersection of the three is where a teacher can seamlessly make technology and pedagogical choices to convey their content expertise.

1.1.2.1.1. When using technology for teaching, four principles to keep in mind

1.1.3. Content Knowledge

1.2. Technology Pedagogy Content Knowledge

1.2.1. a framework used to “understand and describe the kinds of knowledge needed by a teacher for effective pedagogical practice in a technology enhanced learning environment.”

2. Connectivism "Learning from networking"

2.1. Basic Principles

2.1.1. Learning theory for the digital age which is informal, networked, and technology-enabled learning

2.1.1.1. It is the process of connecting to non human appliances (community, network or database) which are specialized nodes of information sources

2.1.1.1.1. It is knowing where to find information, which is more important then knowing information

2.1.1.1.2. These nodes provide currency (accurate, up-to-date knowledge) which is the intent of all connectivist learning.

2.1.1.1.3. Nurturing and maintaining connections is needed to facilitate learning.

2.1.1.2. Knowledge exists in the world and not in the brain of particular individuals

2.1.1.2.1. There is so much information in the world it is better to be able to find information

2.1.2. Learning and knowledge rest in diversity of opinions.

2.1.3. Decision-making is itself a learning process.

2.1.3.1. Choosing what to learn and the meaning of incoming information is seen through the lens of shifting reality. While there is a right answer now, it may be wrong tomorrow due to alterations in the information climate impacting the decision.

2.1.3.2. Knowledge is out there for the learner to find

2.1.3.3. Learning is active

2.1.4. Learning is a knowledge creation process...not only knowledge consumption. Learning tools and design methodologies should seek to capitalize on this trait of learning.

2.2. Implications for Education

2.2.1. Learning happens in many different ways.

2.2.1.1. Courses, email, communities, conversations, web search, email lists, reading blogs, etc. Courses are not the primary conduit for learning.

2.2.2. Allow students to be able to connect with others past physical proximity

2.2.2.1. Teach usage of search engines

2.2.2.2. Model how to use social networking sites and demonstrate positive interactions

3. Constructivism "Learning by doing"

3.1. Basic Principles

3.1.1. Humans build new knowledge (Construct) based upon foundation of previous knowledge

3.1.1.1. Learning is building connections by actively interacting with the environment

3.1.1.1.1. Begin with complex problems and teach basic skills while solving these problems

3.1.2. Schemas= mental representation of information

3.1.2.1. New information is either Assimilated (easily accepted into the mind or Accommodated (mental representation is changed) or Information is ignored

3.1.3. Learners must assume the responsibilities of their own learning, i.e. develop metacognitive abilities

3.1.3.1. Teach as a facilitator

3.2. Implications for Education

3.2.1. Using active techniques like experiments and real world problem solving

3.2.2. prompt students to formulate their own questions (inquiry)

3.2.2.1. Exploration of questions leads to more questions and therefore, more learning

3.2.3. Challenge, address or build upon pre-existing conceptions

3.2.4. Constantly assess learning

3.2.4.1. Students should also question and reflect on their own processes

3.2.5. encourage group work and the use of peers as resources (collaborative learning)

3.2.5.1. Pick up new strategies and methods from one another

3.2.6. allow multiple interpretations and expressions of learning (multiple intelligences)

4. Cognitive load "Learning by organizing"

4.1. Basic Principles

4.1.1. The mind has cognitive structures called "working memory, long term memory, and schemas" and therefore, there are limits

4.1.1.1. The mind is like a computer

4.1.2. Data comes into the brain ->Working Memory accepts and sorts it (Thinking and awareness) <-> Long term memory stores it (stored factual & procedural knowledge)

4.1.2.1. Working memory can overload with too much information

4.1.2.1.1. Working memory can only handle 7 +/- 2 chunks at once

4.1.2.2. Schemas are created by working memory and stored in Long term memory

4.1.2.2.1. automation (doing something without conscious thought) is a result of well developed schemas

4.1.2.3. split attention effect = too much on cognitive load, student has to scan for textual information that is separated from illustration or graphic

4.1.2.3.1. Phonetic scratchpad- textual information "written" down here

4.1.2.3.2. Visual scratchpad- visual information "drawn" here

4.1.2.4. Long term memory is vast and complex

4.2. Implications for Education

4.2.1. Teachers must take care not to overload students with too much information all at once

4.2.1.1. Provide minimum information, or split information into smaller chunkc

4.2.1.2. Don't have powerpoints with too much going on

4.2.2. Provide meaningful information contexts or landscapes

4.2.3. Error/ fundamental attribution error - students think it is their fault for not learning, think not smart enough to learn

4.2.3.1. Actuality there is too much going on and cant keep up in working memory

5. Using Technology

5.1. Social Construction of Technology "Learning shapes technology"

5.1.1. Basic Principles

5.1.1.1. Human action and society shape technology as it is developed

5.1.1.1.1. Technological innovation is a complex process of co-construction in which technology and society, negotiate the meaning of new technological artifacts, alter technology through resistance, and construct social and technological frames-of-thought, practices and action.

5.1.1.2. Interpretative Flexibility

5.1.1.2.1. There is no "one best way" to create a new technological artifact

5.1.2. Implications for Education

5.1.2.1. What works best for you not for all

5.1.2.2. Allow for experimentation of a variety of programs

5.2. Media Ecology "Technology shapes Learning"

5.2.1. Basic Principles

5.2.1.1. Broadly defined as the study of complex communication systems as environments.

5.2.1.1.1. Media ecology is the study of media as environments.

5.2.1.2. The word ecology implies the study of environments: their structure, content, and impact on people.

5.2.1.2.1. An environment is, after all, a complex message system which imposes on human beings certain ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving.

5.2.1.3. It is interested in the human interactions of communications media, technology, and technique and the effect on perception, feeling, thought, value, and behavior

5.2.1.3.1. It tries to find out what roles media force us to play, how media structure what we are seeing, why media make us feel and act as we do.

5.2.1.3.2. How does interaction with media facilitate or impede our survival

5.2.1.4. Technology has strong influences on society and affects humans, therefore, their learning

5.2.2. Implications for Education

5.2.2.1. Cyberbullying

5.2.2.2. Social Networking

6. Frameworks

6.1. Philosophy of Teachnology

6.1.1. Similar to a Teaching Philosophy

6.1.1.1. Addresses more so the personal values of a teacher with their ideas on how technology can be used to enhance teaching

6.1.1.2. Influenced by learning theory and draw on personal and educational experiences

6.1.1.3. will typically include personal beliefs about the roles of teachers and students and methods of teaching and assessment (including concrete examples). .  

6.1.1.3.1. These statements are intended to be revisited and develop over time

6.1.2. Includes technology and how it is to be used in the classroom, in online learning and in Professional development

6.1.2.1. A Professional Learning Network is one use