Catholic Mass Procedure and Its Inspiration to Music

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Catholic Mass Procedure and Its Inspiration to Music by Mind Map: Catholic Mass Procedure and Its Inspiration to Music

1. Introduction

1.1. The origin and mainstream of Christianity, the Catholic church was first founded during Jesus's time, and so the church has already existed for 2000 years. The head of the Catholic church is called Pope, who is now Pope Francis. The first Pope was Peter, a direct disciple of Jesus Christ. The Roman Mass rite combines the traditional Jewish worship and the Roman royal ceremonies. Music is very important in the Catholic church and is always used in the Mass. Catholics believe that music is a form of prayer and they sing to praise God. The Catholic Church considers the Greogorian Chant as their intangible property and treasure. The Greogorian chant was sung in Latin, which was a dialect common to the royal family of the Roman empire. Traditionally, the Gregorian chant was sung in the monophonic texture without instrumental accompaniment.

2. 1. Introit 進堂詠

2.1. During the Medieval time, the Priest and the ministers would passed through various streets from where the priest lived to the church. Not until the 6th Century, Introit included music and songs during the procession. As part of the Proper, the content of Introit changes day by day, and according to the function of the Mass, as well as according to different festivals.

2.1.1. musical example

3. 2. Kyrie 垂憐頌

3.1. "Kyrie eleison" is actually not Latin but a Grecize phrase, in which "Kyrie" mean "Lord", and "eleison" means "have mercy". It first appeared as a short prayer in 300B.C. During Jesus's time, this short phrase was becoming very common (Matthew 9:27; Matthew: 15:22; Mattew: 20:30). In early church ceremonies, Kyrie was placed after Credo as a response. From the 6th Century, Kyrie was placed after Introit as it is now today. In the traditional culture, Kyrie was arranged in a 3x3 format, which means (Priest: Kyrie eleison; Congregation: Kyrie eleison) x3 times (Priest: Christe eleison; Congregation: Christe eleison) x3 times (Priest: Kyrie eleison; Congregation: Kyrie eleison) x3 times However, in the modern ceremonies, this tradition has been simplified to the 1x3 format, which means each pair of alternation is reduced from thrice to once.

3.1.1. Kyrie from Missa de Angelis (VIII), Gregorian chant This Gregorian chant is the most common tune for Kyrie and is still being used in some churches especially in Europe. It was written in Mode V (Fa Sol La Si Do Re Mi Fa). Palestrina's Kyrie from Missa L'homme Arme The tune of this piece was borrowed from a popluar song at that time, namely "L'homme Arme". This tune was also used in other movements to unify the whole piece. J. S. Bach's Kyrie I from Mass in B minor Bach started writing this Mass in 1733. However, the theme of Sanctus had already existed in his previous work in 1724. The whole set of pieces completed in 1749, less than a year before he died. Bach was a Lutheran, there was no record of why he wrote this set of music, which should be used in the Catholic setting. Lots of debate can be found on the internet and forums. Therefore, not any part of this piece had ever been performed during his life time. It was first performed 36 years after his death.

4. 3. Gloria 光榮頌

4.1. The opening phrase, "Gloria in excelsis Deo, et in terra pax hominibus bonae voluntatis" (Glory to God in the highest, and peace on earth to people of good will), is taken from the Bible (Luke: 2:14). The rest of the text contains three parts: praise to the Holy Father, praise to the Holy Son, and praise to the Holy Spirit. It ends with "Amen" The text of Gloria first appeared in the 2nd Century and was written in Greek. It was translated into Latin in the 4th Century and was adopted in the Catholic Roman rite. However, it was allowed to use only in Christmas Masses. During the 6th Century, Gloria was also allowed to use on Sunday Massess if hosted by the Pope. Until the 11th Cenury, Masses hosted by ordinary priests were allowed to consist of Gloria.

4.1.1. Gloria from Missa de Angelis (VIII), Greogrian chant This Glorai is taken from the Missa de Angelis (VIII) and was written in Mode V (Fa Sol La Si Do Re Mi Fa). Vivaldi's Gloria in excelsis Deo, from Gloria, RV589 Vivaldi wrote 3 sets of Gloria but only this version of RV589 has still survived during todays. He divided the text into 12 sections and arrange them into 12 individual movements, in which "Gloria in excelsis Deo" was the first. Beethoven's Gloria, from Missa Solemnis Completed in 1823, four years before Beethoven, Missa Solemnis was one of his most important last works, alongside with Symphony no. 9. As Beethoven was completely deaf during he wrote this piece, he relied on his contrapunctual techniques to write several fugual passages in this movement, although it is still mainly in homophonic texture.

5. 4. Reading 讀經

5.1. 3 passages are chosen from the Bible for each Sunday Mass and Festival Mass, whereas 2 passages are for each weekday Mass. The passages in the Bible are arranged in a 3-year cycle so everyone can finish reading the Bible if s/he has attended all Masses everyday. Even if s/he attends only the Sunday Masses, s/he could still finish the most important parts. The first reading on Sunday Masses is usually taken from the Old Testament with some exceptions. It is then followed by a set of Responsorial 答唱詠 (A fixed tune sung by the congregation to response the lector, whereas the text taken from Psalm) and the second reading (only on Sunday Massess and Festival Masses, with the text taken from the non-Gospel part of the New Testament). Before the last reading, which is taken from the four Gospels, the audience stand up and sing "Alleluia" three times (this could be the real reason why people stand up listening "Alleluia Chorus" of Handel's "Messiah").

6. 5. Sermon 講道

6.1. The sermon has been an important part of the Jewish history, the Catholic Roman rite, as well as the Prostestant Church service.

7. 6. Credo 信經

7.1. During the early 4th Century, Arianism, a nontrinitarian belief, spread rapidly in the Egyptian Church. Arianists believed that Jesus Christ was made by God and so the Holy Son was subordinate to the Holy Father. To oppose this nontrinitarian doctrine, Catholic church established the "Symbolum Niceno-Constantinopolitanum" (or simply as Nicene Creed) during the First Council of Nicaea in 325A.D., to emphasise that Jesus Christ is the "only-begotten Son of God", "born of the Holy Father", and is "God from God", "Light from Light", "true God from true God". The text was first used in the Spanish Church as "Credo" (the beginning word of the text) in the 6th Century, and then widely accepted in the 11th Century. Todays, Credo is used only in Sunday Masses and Festival Masses.

7.1.1. Credo from Missa cum jubilo (IX), Gregorian chant Haydn's Credo from Mass no. 8 in C Major Composed in 1788, Haydn's Mass no. 8 in C Major also named "Mariazeller Messe", which was was commissioned by the officer of Mariazell Church, Anton Liebe von Kreutzner, for his ennoblement. The music was scored to 4 vocal soloists (SATB), a mixed-voice choir, and a small orchestra. Schubert's Credo from Mass no. 2 in G Major One the shorest but most famous Massess composed by Schubert, his Mass no. 2 in G major was composed in 1815. He spent only 5 days to complete it. The music was set to 3 vocal soloists (STB), a mixed-voice choir, and a string orchestra with organ.

8. 7. Offertory 奉獻詠

8.1. Offertory is the procedure that the representatives of the congregation present gifts to God. Music was first used in this part first during mid-4th Century. In the early years, Offertory was sung in the antiphonal style (the tune sung by the lector and the congregation alternatively). Until the 12th Century, Offertory adopted the syle of florid organum in which melisma was employed (many notes are set to a syllable).

8.1.1. Iustitiae Domini

9. 8.Sanctus 歡呼頌

9.1. "Sanctus" means "Holy" and the text contains three parts. The first part was taken from Isaiah 6:3 (Holy, Holy, Holy Lord Almighty, the whole world is full of his glory), the second from Psalm 117:26 (Blessed be he that cometh in the name of the Lord), whereas the third from Matthew 21:9 (Hosanna in the highest). Sanctus already existed in the 1st Century. It was first adopted in Mass in the 4th Century and officially became a part of the Mass in the 6th Century. The first phrase of the text starts with three "Holy", which stand for "the Holy Father, the Holy Son, and the Holy Spirit". It implied the Christian doctorine of Trinity which means the Holy Father, the Holy Son, and the Holy Spirit are the "Lord Almight".

9.1.1. Sanctus from Missa Adventus et Quadrgesimae (XVII), Gregorian chant This piece was composed for the use during Advent and Lent. Mozart's Sanctus from Mass no. 18 in C Minor Mozart's Mass no. 18 in C Minor, also known as the "Great Mass", was composed in 1782 - 83. Although moved to Vienna, Mozart planned to premiere this work in St. Peter's Abbey in Salzburg, with his fiancee, Constanze, as one of the vocal soloists. His objective was very obvious. Mozart's father rejected their marriage, and so Wolfgang wanted to show Constanze to him. The piece was, however, uncompleted, with most part of Credo and the whole Agnus Dei were missing. Some tunes in this Mass were borrowed from some of his previous works, and he had reused a few themes of this work in the others. Rossini's Sanctus from Petite Messe Solennelle Rossini was famous in his operas, and had already written 39 operas by age 28. However, he announced his early retirement after his last opera written in 1830. Since then, he never wrote any opera but just some small instrumental and vocal works. This mass was commissioned by Count Alexis Pillet-Will for his wife whom it is dedicated. Rossini wrote it in 1863. It was orginally scored for 4 vocal soloists (SATB), vocal ensemble (12singers), and two pianos with harmonica. Rossini later orchestrated it into an orchestral version with mixed-voice choir (SATB).

10. 9. Agnus Dei 羔羊頌

10.1. The text of Agnus Dei was derived from John 1:29, which describes Jesus Christ as the lamb of God, who sacrified himself to take away mankind's sins. The text was first in Byzantine rite and was adopted in Roman rite in the 7th Century. In the early beginning, the text of Agnus Dei contained only one phrase which was repeated three times: ...Lamb of God, who take away sin of the world, have mercy on us. Lamb of God, who take away sin of the world, have mercy on us. Lamb of God, who take away sin of the world, have mercy on us. By the 10th Century, the last phrase was changed and the new version have been used till todays. ...Lamb of God, who take away sin of the world, have mercy on us. Lamb of God, who take away sin of the world, have mercy on us. Lamb of God, who take away sin of the world, grant us peace. There is actually another version of Agnus Dei, which is used specifically In a funeral mass (Requiem Mass). The text is slightly different. ..Lamb of God, who take away sin of the world, grant them rest. Lamb of God, who take away sin of the world, grant them rest. Lamb of God, who take away sin of the world, grant them eternal rest.

10.1.1. Agnus Dei from Missa cum jubilo, Gregorian Chant Faure's Agnus Dei from Requiem Faure's Requiem was written in 1887 - 1890. Even though he never admitted, It is generally believed that he wrote it for his fatehr (who died in 1885), and his mother (who died in 1887). The piece was scored for 2 vocal soloists (SB), a mixed-voice choir, and an orchestra. As a master of harmony, Faure treated the harmonic colour of this Agnus Dei skillfully and beautifully. This piece starts on F major, with the Tenor part of the choir starts with the melody. In the middle of the piece, the soprano part takes over the melody and lands on the note C, which is the dominant of F major, followed by the entering of the full choir, replaceing the F major with the Ab major key. Chilcott's Agnus Dei from A Little Jazz Mass Chilcott is an English composer and has been a member of the Choir of King's College, Cambridge, and the King's Singers. On his score of "A Little Jazz Mass", he said he loved jazz and so composed and arranged music using jazz style. A Little Jazz Mass was written in 2004, for the New Orleans Children's Chorus that he was conducting. It was scored for treble choir (SSA) with piano accompaniment.

11. 10. Communion 領主詠

11.1. Communion means the Lord's Supper, and is the centre of the Roman Catholic rite. In the earliest era, the music for Communion was sung in antiphonal style (the tune is sung by the lector and the congregation alternatively).

11.1.1. Communio Petite, Dominica XVII

12. 11. Ite missa est 禮成

12.1. At the end of rite, a minister will shout out this phrase, “Ite missa est”, which means “It is dismissed”, symbolising that the congregation are sent to spread the words of Jesus Christ. The name of Catholic Roman rite, “Mass”, is derived from the word “missa” (dismissed).