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F332 Organic Chemistry by Mind Map: F332 Organic Chemistry
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F332 Organic Chemistry


general formula of CnH2n

Unsaturated hydrocarbons, Contains (C=C) double bonds

Use Bromine water to test for C=C double bonds, If C=C double bond is present, solution will decolourise from brown

undergoes addition reactions

can produce alkanes, react with hydrogen gas, nickel catalyst and temperature of 150°C and high pressure, platinum catalyst at room temperature

can produce halogenoalkanes, electrophilic addition reactions, opens up C=C double bonds, alkene electrophilic addition bromine, (1,2-dibromoethane), additon with hydrogen halides, ethene and hydrogen bromide, (1-bromoethane)

forms an alcohol, heat with steam (at 300°C, pressure of 60 atm) with phosphoric(V) acid catalyst, react cold sulphuric acid with an alkene in an electrophilic reaction, add cold water and warm the product, alkene is hydrolysed, e.g. H2C=CH + H2O --(H2SO4)->C2H5OH


general formula of R-OH

where -OH is the hydroxyl group

meaning alcohol molecules are polar, therefore HYDROGEN BONDING exists between alcohol molecules, explains why alcohol can mix with water because there is hydrogen bonding between alcohol and water molecules

names end in "-ol"

has 3 types

Primary alcohol (1°), -OH group is at the end of the chain, attached to only one alkyl group, OXIDISE, use potassium dichromate (VI) and sulphuric acid (turns solution from orange to green), distill, an aldehyde is formed, adding Fehlings solution, if aldehyde is present, it will result in deep red precipitate (copper(I) oxide), reflux, carboxylic acid formed

Secondary alcohol (2°), -OH group is in the middle of a chain, where the carbon the hydroxyl group is attached to is joined to only 2 other alkyl groups, OXIDISE, use potassium dichromate (VI) and sulphuric acid (turns solution from orange to green), distill, a ketone is formed, if Fehlings solution is added, it will stay blue

Tertiary alcohol (3°), -OH group is attached to a carbon atom which carries no hydrogen atoms, cannot be oxidised, this is because potassium dichromate is not a strong enough oxidising agent so therefore, if added, solution will stay orange

can be dehydrated

forms alkenes, reflux with concentrated sulphuric acid, pass alcohol vapour over aluminium oxide catalyst

can be made into chloroalkane

Stage 1   mix 2-methylpropan-2-ol with concentrated HCl in a separating funnel for 20 minutes releasing pressure every so often   Stage 2 allow mixture to settle into layers run off the bottom layer leaving with impure halogenoalkane in the separating funnel Stage 3 neutralize excess acid by adding NaHCO3, shake and release pressure run off lower layer add distilled water, shake and run off add anhydrous sodium sulfate (drying agent) distill


often shown as R-Hal, where Hal could be F,Cl,Br,or I

C-Hal bond is polar

Physical properties

Higher boiling points down group 7

Reactions of halogenoalkanes

Homolytic Fission (forms radicals), R-Hal -> R''+Hal''

Heterolytic Fission (forms ions), R-Hal -> R+ + Hal-, Nucleophilic substitution, R-X+NaOH -> ROH + NaX, e.g. C2H5Br + NaOH -> C2H5OH + NaBr, halogenoalkanes react with OH- ions, reacts with ammonia to form amines

Substitution Reaction, R-Hal + X- -> R-X + Hal-

halogen reactivity

Carbon Halogen bond that decides reactivity, not polarity

react haloalkanes with water, chrloro/bromo/iodoalkanes with silver nitrate and ethanol as a solvent, fastest substance to form precipitates is the most reactive