LEARNING THEORIES MIND MAP

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LEARNING THEORIES MIND MAP by Mind Map: LEARNING THEORIES MIND MAP

1. Learning Theories

1.1. CONNECTIVISM

1.1.1. Theorists

1.1.1.1. Siemens

1.1.1.1.1. Know where to find more important then knowing what or how (Siemens)

1.1.1.2. Downes

1.1.1.2.1. Knowledge is "the set of connections formed by actions and experiences"

1.1.2. Key Ideas

1.1.2.1. Learning is process of creating connections and developing a network

1.1.2.1.1. connect information sources and specialist nodes of knowledge

1.1.2.2. "A learning theory for the digital age"

1.1.2.3. Being able to find vs being able to remember

1.1.2.3.1. ž “…forget about trying to ‘know’ everything; instead, build your network of knowledge sources, and access them whenever you need them.” -Ryan Tracey

1.1.2.3.2. Capacity to know more is of greater importance then what you currently know

1.1.2.4. Learning and knowledge rests in diversity of opinions

1.1.2.5. Connectivist learning activities are meant to help the learner gain Currency, as in accurate, up to date information.

1.1.2.6. Seeing connections core skill (between fields, ideas, concepts)

1.1.2.6.1. continual learning requires nurturing connections

1.1.3. Criticisms

1.1.3.1. Really new?

1.1.3.2. informal vs formal learning

1.1.3.3. My thoughts: How to make deeper/complex connections when relying on finding knowledge?

1.1.3.4. Internal Criticisms

1.1.3.4.1. Siemens: Groups are networks

1.1.3.4.2. Downes: Socialization should not be a goal of Education

1.2. CONSTRUCTIVISM

1.2.1. Theorists

1.2.1.1. Vygotsky

1.2.1.1.1. Zone of Proximal Development

1.2.1.2. Dewey

1.2.1.3. Piaget

1.2.1.4. Montessori

1.2.2. Key Ideas

1.2.2.1. Mind as Network/The Mind is a Rhizome

1.2.2.2. We learn by building connections when we actively interact with the environemnt

1.2.2.3. Create constructs to act as filters, to order our reality

1.2.2.3.1. Build our own knowledge

1.2.2.4. Roots in Cognitivism (see yellow)

1.2.2.5. Learning as active, social process

1.2.2.6. Knowledge should be discovered

1.2.3. Key Ideas for Education

1.2.3.1. Learner as self-directed, innovative and creative

1.2.3.1.1. Student-Centered

1.2.3.1.2. Teacher facilitates learning

1.2.3.2. Learning involves building your own knowledge from your own experiences

1.2.3.3. Start with complex problems, teach basic skills well solving these problems

1.2.3.3.1. Problem-Based Learning

1.2.3.3.2. Project-Based Learning

1.2.3.3.3. Learning should involve AUTHENTIC TASKS

1.2.3.3.4. Active Learning

1.2.3.3.5. Discovery Learning

1.2.3.3.6. Collaborative Learning

1.2.3.3.7. Case-based Learning

1.2.4. Criticisms

1.2.4.1. Subjective-create own version of the truth

1.2.4.1.1. My thoughts: problematic connection to relativism

1.2.4.2. Time Consuming

1.2.4.3. Requires mature learners

1.2.4.4. Difficult for teachers to assess

1.2.4.5. Impractical without prior Knowledge

1.2.4.5.1. My thoughts: much to offer but needs to be balanced with other learning techniques to ensure strong Knowledge base.

1.2.4.6. Requires further research and empirical evidence

1.3. COGNITIVE LOAD

1.3.1. Cognitivism

1.3.1.1. Theorists

1.3.1.1.1. Piaget

1.3.1.1.2. Gagne

1.3.1.1.3. Vygotsky

1.3.1.1.4. Bruner

1.3.1.1.5. Also Wiener, Tolman, Miller, Neisser etc.

1.3.1.2. Key Ideas

1.3.1.2.1. Behaviour can be explained by internal processes of the mind

1.3.1.2.2. Mind like computer: input, store, retrieve data

1.3.1.2.3. Response to Behaviorism

1.3.1.2.4. Prior Knowledge Key to Learning

1.3.1.3. Key Ideas of Teaching

1.3.1.3.1. Schema/Scaffolding

1.3.1.3.2. Motivation

1.3.1.3.3. Practice for Retention

1.3.1.3.4. Organization

1.3.1.3.5. Mnemonic devices

1.3.1.3.6. Mental Maps

1.3.1.4. Criticisms

1.3.1.4.1. Can't study unobservable behaviour

1.3.1.4.2. Reduces humans to machines

1.3.1.4.3. Ignores biological factors

1.3.1.4.4. Ignores affective and psychomotor

1.3.1.4.5. Narrowly focuses on Knowledge

1.3.2. Cognitive Load

1.3.2.1. Processing information can over or under load our working/short term memory

1.3.2.1.1. Overstimulation

1.3.2.1.2. Under-stimulation

1.3.2.2. Ideas for Teaching

1.3.2.2.1. Chunking

1.3.2.2.2. Instructional Design

1.3.2.2.3. Learning Structures

1.3.2.2.4. Implications for EdTech?

1.4. BEHAVIORISM

1.4.1. Theorists

1.4.1.1. Pavlov

1.4.1.1.1. Pavlov's dog

1.4.1.2. Watson

1.4.1.2.1. Classical conditioning

1.4.1.2.2. Albert B.

1.4.1.3. Thorndike

1.4.1.3.1. Law of Effect

1.4.1.4. Skinner

1.4.1.4.1. Operant Conditioning and Skinner's Box

1.4.1.4.2. Shaping

1.4.2. Key Ideas

1.4.2.1. Concerned with observable behaviour not with thinking

1.4.2.2. Behaviour determined by stimulus-response (repetition)

1.4.2.3. Conditioning

1.4.2.3.1. Behaviour determined by environment

1.4.2.3.2. Learn from consequences

1.4.2.3.3. Negative reinforcement

1.4.2.3.4. Positive Reinforcement

1.4.2.4. tabula rasa, child's mind as blank slate

1.4.3. In Teaching

1.4.3.1. Modelling

1.4.3.2. Shaping

1.4.3.3. Cuing

1.4.3.4. Drill and practice

1.4.3.5. Direct Instruction

1.4.3.5.1. Teacher Directed/Lecture

1.4.4. Criticisms

1.4.4.1. Too dterministic -denies freewill

1.4.4.2. Oversimplistic

1.4.4.2.1. Learning not always tied to behaviour

1.4.4.2.2. Ignores internal action such as thinking

1.4.4.3. Humans adapt

1.4.4.4. Learning can be achieved without rewards/punishment

1.4.4.5. Should not compare humans to animals

2. Technology and Society

2.1. MEDIA ECOLOGY

2.1.1. Theorists

2.1.1.1. McLuhan

2.1.1.1.1. "The Global Village"

2.1.1.1.2. "The Medium Is the Message"

2.1.1.2. Postman

2.1.1.2.1. "Media ecology is the study of media as environments."

2.1.2. Key Ideas

2.1.2.1. 1) Technology effects humanity and Society

2.1.2.1.1. "technology and techniques, modes of information and codes of communication play a leading role in human affairs" -Lance Strate

2.1.2.1.2. How does technology change us?

2.1.2.2. 2) Technology as environments

2.1.2.2.1. As an environment, media imposes certain ways of "thinking, feeling and behaving" by impacting what we see and how we can act. -Postman

2.1.2.3. 3) We have moved in the electronic age and have become part of a global community

2.1.3. Critiques

2.1.3.1. "The Medium is NOT the message"

2.1.3.1.1. interpretations vary and the content matters

2.1.3.2. Technologcal determinism

2.1.3.2.1. Do we not effect technology?

2.2. SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF TECHNOLOGY (SCOT)

2.2.1. Theorists

2.2.1.1. Bijker

2.2.1.2. Pinch

2.2.2. Key Ideas

2.2.2.1. Critiques determinism of Media Ecology

2.2.2.1.1. 1) technology does not determine human action, human action shapes technology

2.2.2.1.2. Technological Constructivism

2.2.2.2. 2) Must understand technology's social context

2.2.2.2.1. It is not just the "best" technology that is embraced

2.2.2.2.2. Relevant Social Groups

2.2.2.3. 3)Interpretative flexibility

2.2.2.3.1. Different groups interpret technologies differently. They see different benefits and problems.

2.2.3. Critiques

2.2.3.1. Ignores the consequences of technologies

2.2.3.2. superficial, ignores deeper reasons for social choices

2.2.3.3. Unhelpful in resolving debates about human use of technology as fails to make moral judgements

3. Technology-based Learning Theories

3.1. TPACK

3.1.1. Theorists

3.1.1.1. Mishra

3.1.1.2. Koehler

3.1.1.3. Builds on PCK of Schulman

3.1.2. Key Ideas

3.1.2.1. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Content + Pedagogy + Technology

3.1.2.1.1. Where Content, Pedagogy and Technology intersect

3.1.2.2. Use best technology to teach pedagogical content knowledge

3.1.2.3. Technology should serve content and pedagogy. Don't start with technology.

3.1.2.3.1. How can I best teach the content?

3.1.2.4. Ask yourself:

3.1.2.4.1. What do I need to teach?

3.1.2.4.2. What is the best way to teach it?

3.1.2.4.3. What technology works best?

3.1.2.5. How do we incorporate technology into our teaching?

3.2. TEACHNOLOGY

3.2.1. Key Ideas

3.2.1.1. Combines beliefs about teaching and current teaching practices

3.2.1.1.1. How does this impact your teaching?

3.2.1.1.2. How does it impact how you use technology within the classrooom?

3.2.1.2. Philosophy of teaching as it connects to using technology

3.2.1.2.1. What do you believe about teaching?

3.2.1.2.2. What do you believe about technology?

3.2.1.2.3. What is your personal teachnology?

3.3. 21st CENTURY LEARNING

3.3.1. Theorists

3.3.1.1. Mishra

3.3.1.2. Kereliuk

3.3.2. Key Ideas

3.3.2.1. What do students need to know today?

3.3.2.1.1. Foundational Knowledge "to know"

3.3.2.1.2. Meta Knowledge "to act"

3.3.2.1.3. Humanistic Knowledge "to value"

3.4. SAMR Model

3.4.1. Theorists

3.4.1.1. Puentedura

3.4.2. Key Ideas

3.4.2.1. How are we changing our tasks when we incorporate technology into teaching?

3.4.2.1.1. Technology Integration Levels