Learning Theories

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Learning Theories by Mind Map: Learning Theories

1. Cognitivism

1.1. Principles

1.1.1. Our minds are not blank slates; they are active and organized information processers.

1.1.1.1. Our mind = like a computer

1.1.2. Prior knowledge = very important for learning

1.1.2.1. Schema = how we organize our existing knowledge.

1.1.2.2. Meaningful effect

1.1.2.2.1. Like Velcro

1.1.3. Memory

1.1.3.1. Atkinson-Shiffrin Memory Model

1.1.3.1.1. Sensory Memory

1.1.3.1.2. Short term memory

1.1.3.1.3. Long term memory

1.1.4. Organization

1.1.4.1. We need to organize information in our long term memory with...

1.1.4.1.1. Mnemonics

1.1.4.1.2. Mental Maps

1.1.4.1.3. Chunking

1.1.4.1.4. Graphic organizers organizers

1.1.4.1.5. Note-taking

1.2. Theorists

1.2.1. Piaget

1.2.1.1. Schema

1.2.2. Gagnet

1.2.3. Vygotsky

1.2.3.1. Scaffolding, zone of proximal development

1.2.4. Bruner

1.3. Cognitive Load Theory

1.3.1. Our memories can only take so much. They can be over- or under-loaded.

1.3.2. Need to consider user interface, instructional design so memory is not over-loaded.

1.3.3. Error / Fundamental Attribution Error

1.3.3.1. Might not be students' fault that they fail; it may be the way information is presented.

1.4. Implications for Education

1.4.1. Teachers need to make sure students have necessary background knowledge

1.4.2. Lessons should connect to students' prior knowledge. This will help learning stick.

1.4.3. Students need to organize information for storage in long-term memory with various techniques. (See connections above.)

1.4.4. Teachers need to be aware of Cognitive Load Theory. They should not design lessons that will over- or under-stimulate. Use chunking techniques.

1.4.5. Possible technologies

1.4.5.1. Prezi

1.4.5.2. Digital mind-mapping (like this program!)

1.5. Criticisms

1.5.1. Ignores affective and psychomotor

1.5.2. Emphasizes knowledge over understanding and higher order thinking skills.

2. Behavioralism

2.1. Principles

2.1.1. Stimulus Response

2.1.1.1. Stimulus --> Brain --> Learning

2.1.2. Operant Conditioning

2.1.2.1. Positive Reinforcement

2.1.2.2. Negative Reinforcement

2.1.2.3. Positive Punishment

2.1.2.4. Negative Punishment

2.1.3. Practice and Repetition

2.2. Theorists

2.2.1. Pavlov

2.2.1.1. Pavlov's dog

2.2.2. Watson

2.2.3. Thorndike

2.2.4. Skinner

2.3. Implications for Education

2.3.1. Class style: teacher-directed, direct instruction, lecturing.

2.3.1.1. This would only work for auditory learners, and would reward those that already do well in school.

2.3.2. Rote Learning - drill and practice

2.3.2.1. Could be useful for learning basic facts as background knowledge (cognitivism) before moving on to activities based on constructivism or even connectivism

2.3.3. Rewards and punishments to reinforce learning (the "desired behaviour")

2.3.3.1. Could be useful for classroom management, but only to a certain extent, because students need to learn self-regulatory behavior.

2.3.4. Possible technologies

2.3.4.1. Drill-and-practice type computer games for math, grammar, etc.

2.3.4.2. Iclickers, because of instant reward

2.3.4.3. TED Talks and other lectures on places like Youtube, because they use the lecture format.

3. Constructivism

3.1. Principles

3.1.1. Learning = building connections by interacting with the environment.

3.1.1.1. Mind = rhizome, network

3.1.2. Learning through complex problems; people gain basic skills and knowledge while solving a larger problem.

3.1.3. Learning comes from constructing knowledge through one's experiences.

3.1.4. Constructionism

3.1.4.1. Seymour Papert

3.1.4.1.1. Lego Robotics

3.1.4.1.2. Click here to see videos about his contribution to Education Technology

3.1.4.2. Learning by making

3.1.4.3. Students learn most when they make tangible objects.

3.2. Implications for Education

3.2.1. More student-centered

3.2.1.1. Teacher as facilitator

3.2.1.2. NOT teacher as lecturer

3.2.2. Problem-based learning

3.2.2.1. Need to guide students towards posing and then tacking complex problems. Many students do not really understand what a problem is.

3.2.3. Project-based learning

3.2.3.1. To me, constructivism fits really well into the philosophy of the school I taught at in Mexico, which used project-based learning in elementary and IB's Middle Years Program in secondary.

3.2.4. Authentic tasks

3.2.4.1. Technology is especially useful for this aspect, because students can engage more with the "real world"

3.2.5. Collaborative Learning

3.2.6. Possible technologies

3.2.6.1. Video games

3.2.6.2. Wordpress

3.2.6.3. Google docs

3.2.7. Zone of Proximal Development

3.3. Criticisms

3.3.1. Time consuming

3.3.1.1. However, I think that in the long run constructivism is less time consuming. It takes a while to set up but then later you don't have to be constantly lecturing.

3.3.2. Subjective learning

3.3.3. Difficult to assess

3.3.4. You need to have mature learners

3.3.4.1. Would need to educate students on...

3.3.4.1.1. Net etiquette

3.3.4.1.2. Net safety

3.3.4.1.3. Cyberbullying

3.3.5. Difficult without prior knowledge

4. Connectivism

4.1. Principles

4.1.1. Knowledge as connections

4.1.1.1. Seeing connections is a core skill

4.1.1.2. Nurturing connections important for lifelong learning.

4.1.2. Learning is being able to construct and traverse connections

4.1.3. Currency of information

4.1.4. Diversity of opinions

4.1.5. Knowing where to access information is more important than knowing the information.

4.2. Implications for Education

4.2.1. Teachers would need to change the way they assess

4.2.2. Rote knowledge would be obselete; instead, teachers would teach students where to find information

4.2.3. Teachers need to guide students in their online communications and collaborations: intercultural communication, respecting diversity of opinions, online etiquette.

4.2.4. Schools would need extensive technology

4.2.4.1. Issue of accessibility: what if some students don't have technology at home?

4.2.5. Teachers need to embrace, not punish, cell phone use.

4.2.6. Possible technologies

4.2.6.1. Facebook

4.2.6.2. Twitter

4.2.6.3. MOOCs

4.2.6.3.1. Click here for a video about MOOCs

5. Media Ecology

5.1. Principles

5.1.1. Media as environments

5.1.2. As an environment, media...

5.1.2.1. Structures what we can say or see

5.1.2.2. Shapes our roles

5.1.2.3. Specifies what we are permitted to do.

5.1.3. Media environments (technology, modes of information, communication) shape human affairs.

5.2. Theorists

5.2.1. Neil Postman

5.2.2. Lance Strate

5.2.3. Christine Nystrom

5.3. Implications for Education

5.3.1. Teachers need to understand the environment in which today's students live, and how it affects how they act and communicate

5.3.2. Teachers have the responsibility to teach their students digital citizenship - students need to know how to live in an ever-evolving media environment.

6. Technology Frameworks

6.1. TPACK

6.1.1. Principles

6.1.1.1. Teaching is a combination of...

6.1.1.1.1. CK: Content Knowledge

6.1.1.1.2. PK: Pedagogical Knowledge

6.1.1.1.3. TK: Technological Knowledge

6.1.1.2. Areas of overlap important

6.1.1.2.1. PCK

6.1.1.2.2. TCK

6.1.1.2.3. TPK

6.1.1.2.4. TPACK

6.1.1.3. Need to balance three kinds of knowledge; an activity should not over-emphasize on or more over the other(s)

6.1.2. Theorists

6.1.2.1. Punya Mishra

6.1.2.2. Matthew Koehler

6.1.3. Implications for Education

6.1.3.1. For any learning goal (CK), teachers need to consider what types of activities would achieve the goal (PK), and which technology would help achieve that (TK)

6.1.3.2. It's important for teachers not just to use technology as an goal in itself. They must consider how it interacts with and augments CK and PK.

6.1.3.3. Teachers should plan activities that balance TK, CK and PK.

6.1.3.4. Teachers must seek professional development that will expand the area of overlap in the TPACK Venn diagram.

6.2. 21st Century Learning

6.2.1. Principles

6.2.1.1. A 21st century learner needs three kinds of knowledge

6.2.1.1.1. Foundational knowledge

6.2.1.1.2. Meta-knowledge

6.2.1.1.3. Humanistic Knowledge

6.2.2. Theorists

6.2.2.1. Punya Mishra

6.2.2.2. Kristen Kereluik

6.2.3. Still an emerging framework

6.3. Philosophy of Teachnology

6.3.1. Principles

6.3.1.1. A philosophy of teachnology is a statement of teachers' beliefs about...

6.3.1.1.1. The role of technology in the class

6.3.1.1.2. How teachers can and should use technology to aid learning and teaching

6.3.2. No one theorist

6.3.3. Implications for Education

6.3.3.1. Teachers must create their own philosophy of teachnology, in order to guide...

6.3.3.1.1. Their teaching strategies

6.3.3.1.2. Their professional development and goals (PGP)