Human Body

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Human Body by Mind Map: Human Body

1. Skeletal System

1.1. Axial Skeleton

1.1.1. Central axis of the body

1.1.2. 80 bones/40% of all the bones

1.1.3. Function-MAPS Movement, Attachment of muscles and bones, Protect vital organs and support the body

1.2. Appendicular Skeleton

1.2.1. Function: SMAMB Support, movement, Attachment for bones and muscles, mineral reservoir, Blood cell formation

1.2.2. 126 bones / 60 % of all the bones

1.3. Types of bones (FECS)

1.3.1. short Examples: carpals and tarsals (wrist and foot bones) Small cube-shaped bones and are as wide as they are long Provides support and stability with little movement :SMS The outer surface of bone is called the periosteum. The next layer consists of thin layer of compact bone with cancellous bone on the inside along with some bone marrow

1.3.2. Long Examples: Humerus, Phalanges, Tibia Elongated bones have a body which is longer than it is wide with growth plates (epiphysis) at both ends Provide shape for our bodies ,host the vital organs. Help in movement (using the muscles that control bone position and orientation). Helps in blood cell formation, storage of minerals like calcium and sodium. BMMSH surface of compact bone and cancellous bone inside containing bone marrow. Both ends of the bone are covered in hyaline cartilage to help protect the bone and aid shock absorbtion. powerful muscles, such as those of the leg and arm, are attached.

1.3.3. Flat Examples: Scapula (shoulder blade). The Sternum (breast bone), Cranium (skull), os coxae (hip bone) Pelvis and Ribs. strong, flat plates of bone Function: providing protection to vital organs and being a base for muscular attachment. Red blood cell formation (PMR) Surfaces are formed of compact bone (strength for protection) with the centre consisiting of cancellous (spongy) bone and varying amounts of bone marrow.

1.3.4. Irregular The bones that don't fit in the other three categories Examples: Vertebrae, Sacrum and Mandible (lower jaw). mostly consist of cancellous bone, with a thin outer layer of compact bone.

1.4. Function: BMMSP Producing blood cells, Body movement, Storing minerals, Support, Protecting vital organs.

1.5. 2 types of skeletons FACS

1.5.1. Endoskeletons 'inside' skeleton internal framework of the body BMMSP- protect vital organs, supports body and produces blood cells Found in all vertebrate animals Composed of calcium Phsophate

1.5.2. Exoskeletons 'outside' skeletons Supports and protects body, gives legs, wings a place to attach Insects Hard outside skeleton Composed of carbohydrate

1.6. Types of joints (FICS) (THEF)

1.6.1. Fibrous connect bones without allowing any movement. Fixed or immovable joints Bones of your skull and pelvis are held together by fibrous joints. Held together by only a ligament.

1.6.2. Cartilaginous Joints in which the bones are attached by cartilage. Only a little movement In the spine or ribs.

1.6.3. Synovial Freely movable joints Cavaties between bones in synovial joints are filled with synovial fluid. (fluid helps to lubricate and protect the bones.) Bursa sacks contain the synovial fluid.

1.6.4. Immovable An articulation between bones in which no movement occurs. It is also referred to as synarthrotic (meaning immovable). Can be either one of two types of joints, fibrous or cartilaginous.

2. Muscular System

2.1. Function: MPH Produces movement, Maintains posture, Produces body heat

2.2. Three types of muscles FFETS

2.2.1. Smooth Found in the walls of most organs. (kidneys, stomach) Carry out the actions that we don't have to think about. (breathing, or the expansion and contraction of the lungs) Involuntary muscles usually in sheets, or layers, with one layer of muscle behind the other.

2.2.2. Skeletal found almost everywhere in the body. (calves, thighs, hamstrings) attached to a bone. Is used to move the bones in the body. voluntary muscles has stripe-like markings

2.2.3. Cardiac Found only in the heart. The function is to keep the heart beating. Involuntary muscle Is striated Is attached together

2.3. Three types of connective tissue

2.3.1. Tendons A connective tissue attaching muscle to bone. When muscle contracts to move a joint, it is the tendon which pulls on the bone

2.3.2. Cartilage Soft, cushioning substance which covers ends of the bones Acts as shock absorber and reduces the rubbing of the bone surfaces

2.3.3. Ligaments Are strong bands which connect bones to bones at the joint Are elasticated To allow movement of that joint and are strong enough to stop movement outside the normal range

2.4. Muscle Fibres

2.4.1. Fast twitch Contract quickly and provide strength and speed but fatigue more quickly. Sprinters require short but intense bursts of energy and therefore need more fast-twitch muscle fibers. Relies on ATP and glycogen as their main energy source.

2.4.2. Slow twitch Contract slowly Can be used for longer periods of time. Athletes who run long distances need more slow-twitch fibers in their legs. Relies on oxygen as their main energy source.

2.5. Muscle contractions

2.5.1. Isotonic cause muscle to change length as it contracts and causes movement of a body part. Concentric Eccentric

2.5.2. Isometric occur when there is no change in the length of the contracting muscle. carrying an object in front of you as the weight of the object is pulling your arms down but your muscles are contracting to hold the object at the same level.

2.5.3. Isokinetic muscle changes length during the contraction and produces movements of a constant speed. Brest stroke in swimming

2.6. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones by tendons, which use the bones as levers to move the body and its parts.

2.6.1. In order to move, the nervous system signals a skeletal muscle to contract. When the muscle contracts, this movement causes the tendons to pull the bone

3. Communication System

3.1. Brain communicates with body through the nervous and endocrine system

3.2. Nervous system

3.2.1. Faster processes like breathing and body movement Brain The brain Spinal Cord The spinal cord is connected to the base of the brain and is also protected by cerebrospinal fluid and a bony case called the vertebral column. Nerves

3.2.2. Controls your movements, coordination and body messages

3.2.3. Neurons Nerve cells specialised cells transmit and receive messages in the form of electrical impulses.

3.2.4. Two types of nerves Sensory nerves carry messages from the sense organs to the brain and spinal cord. Motor nerves Other nerves carry messages from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands

3.2.5. Two main parts of nervous sytem Central nervous system Consists of Control centre- receives messages from all around the body and sends out messages to tell the body what to do. Peripheral nervous system Consists of help to automatically regulate important organs, and allow you to move and to sense things. These nerves continually inform the central nervous system of any change in conditions and then transmit the response back to the affected organ.

3.2.6. How nervous system works When you place your hand on a hot pot handle, pain receptors in your skin sends a message through a sensory nerve to the spinal cord. This message crosses small gaps between neurons, called synapses, to a nerve in your spinal cord called a connector neuron. It then passes the message to a motor neuron, which carries the message back to the muscles that move your arm. These muscles contract and pull your hand away from the stove without you having to think about it. The brain itself is not yet involved. The brain is informed of what has happened and a secondary response may be a cry of pain. The brain also may store this information, in the case of the situation shown in Figure 4.6.3, to prevent you from touching the hot surface again. A reflex arc enables your body to automatically control itself without conscious thought.

3.3. Endocrine system

3.3.1. in charge of body processes that happen slowly, such as cell growth. But even though the nervous system and endocrine system are separate systems, they often work together to help the body function properly. glands A gland is a group of cells that produces and secretes, or gives off, chemicals. A gland selects and removes materials from the blood, processes them, and secretes the finished chemical product for use somewhere in the body. Although the endocrine glands are the body's main hormone producers, some non-endocrine organs — such as the brain, heart, lungs, kidneys, liver, thymus, skin, and placenta — also produce and release hormones. Are chemical messengers produced by endocrine glands that are triggered by your brain ordering changes within your body. Hormones Specifically shaped molecules, each carries a different message each type of hormone is designed to affect only certain cells. transfer information and instructions from one set of cells to another. ]move through the bloodstream are relatively slow acting when compared but long-lasting

3.3.2. The rate at which the chemical reactions occur within your body is called your metabolism. Reptiles, fish, amphibians are ectothermic, or cold-blooded. This means that their level of activity will depend on the external temperature Mammals and birds are endothermic, or warm-blooded. This means that their body temperatures remain the same all year. All chemical reactions within the body produce heat. To function effectively your body needs to maintain a temperature of 37°C. too hot = more blood flows to the surface of the skin, carrying heat with it. Too cold = less blood is sent to your skin surface, so you lose less heat. These body functions are controlled by the part of the brain called the hypothalamus. Still active when asleep

3.4. Hypothalamus- controls body temperature,blood pressure, thirst and hunger.

3.5. Table

4. Movement of particles

4.1. Osmosis

4.1.1. Is the movement of water from a region of low concentration to a region of high concentration through a semi-permeable membrane

4.1.2. Importance and examples: Controls the flow of molecules between the blood and other tissues and maintains its balance In plants, water concentration is greater outside the plant cell, so water enters the cells until both sides have the same solute concentration In humans, dyhydration and sweat

4.1.3. Occurs in order to balance the difference in solute concentration between both sides.

4.1.4. The solvent molecules move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated solution through a semi-permeable membrane that is only permeable to them

4.1.5. Reverse osmosis is applied in desalination is the removal of dissolved salts from water in order to produce water. Pressure is applied in the salt water, it pushes water (solvent) to the other side of the membrane and leaving the salt (solute) behind, separating water from salt

4.2. diffusion

4.2.1. Movement of particles from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration until equilibrium

4.2.2. More particles in that certain area, therefore resulting in more collision. So particles will be bumped out of that more concentrated area to a less concentrated area.

4.2.3. Move randomly and spread throughout the whole solution until they reach equilibrium

4.2.4. Importance and examples: responsible into bringing nutrients in cells and releasing wastes In animals, glucose and oxygen is diffused from the blood into cells in order to carry out respiration. In plants, carbon dioxide diffuses through the stomata of leaves in order to carry out photosynthesis. The leaves produce oxygen and water vapour which then diffuses out through the stomata.

4.3. Surface area to volume ratio

4.3.1. The amount of SA to the volume of an organism

4.3.2. The larger the surface area to volume ratio, the higher the diffusion rate is

4.3.3. Large multi-cellular organisms are made of numerous small cells rather than a few large cells

4.3.4. Larger single-celled organisms tend to be cylindricalor elongated in shape as oppose to spherical As more SA on cylinders than spheres

4.3.5. Less surface area Large Spherical Slow rated diffusion

4.3.6. More surface area Fast rate of diffusion Elongated shape (nerve cells) Small