History of Visual Communication

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History of Visual Communication by Mind Map: History of Visual Communication

1. History of computers

1.1. IBM stand for international buisness machines.

1.1.1. Konrad Zuse is credited with inventing the first freely programmable computer.

1.2. IBM developed the edpm computer

1.2.1. the first internet was called arpanet

1.3. floppy disc were flexible disc that had all of your memory

1.3.1. Apple introduced the lisa computer in 1983

1.3.1.1. lisa had a graphically user interface

1.4. Howard Aiken and Grace Hopper designed the Mark series of computers .

1.4.1. The Mark computers were created for the navy for gunnery and ballistic calculations.

1.4.2. The first commercial computer was the univac for the census bureau. john Preseper Eckert and John Mauckly designed it.

1.4.3. fortranwas the first high level programming language.

1.4.4. Bill Gates and Microsoft introduced the windows operating system in response to Apple’s operating system.

2. HIEROGLYPHICS - 6th century BC

2.1. was a formal writing sysem that contained a combination of logographic and alphabetic elements

2.1.1. The Rosetta stone contained greek, domatic,and hieroglyphics on the stone. Eygptians deciphered the language on the stone.

2.2. The word hieroglyphics came from two greek words hiero means sacred glyphic means engraving or writing

2.2.1. hieroglyphics were created to show respect

2.2.1.1. Ancient Egyptians believed it was important to record and communicate information about religion and goverment

3. CAVE PAINTINGS 30,000 years ago

3.1. Lascaux cave

3.1.1. 3 reasons cave paintings were made - religious-educational- to tell stories.

3.1.1.1. Brushes were made with sticks.small stones, leaves, and hair.

3.1.2. Definition- a beautiful detailed and colorful representation found on the inside of cave walls.

3.1.2.1. Paint was made withwater, plant juice , animal blood, soil, charocal,and hematite

3.1.2.1.1. Several common themes found in cave paintings are animals,people , hand prints, random drawings.

3.1.2.2. Lascaux cave became a tourists site for paintings but it had to close because the paintings were going away because of carbon dioxide from humans.

3.2. Altamira cave

3.2.1. Most paintings in the Altamira cave had a red hue because of the red soil.

4. CUNEIFORM-

4.1. as cuneiform kept getting created it became more abstract and had more text.

4.1.1. Cuneiform was drawn on wet clay

4.1.1.1. Sumer considered the cradle of civilization because it is where cuneiform was created

4.2. Sumerians created cuneiform.

4.2.1. Cuneiform began as a series of pictograms

4.3. cuneiform was created to keep track of buisness.

4.3.1. Sumerians made impressions into the clay surface by using wedge shaped stylus made from reeds to make impressions on the clay.

5. PHONETIC ALPHABET

5.1. -scholars beileievd it to be a direct variation of hieroglyphics - ties with cuneiform or an independent creations.

5.1.1. a rigid formal script was used for important manuscripts and official documents

5.1.1.1. one sign represents one represents one spoken sound.

5.2. Letters started with consonants.

5.2.1. it was the first simple widespread script

6. the Gutenberg presss

6.1. Johannes Gutenberg introduced modern book printing

6.1.1. A printing presss is a hand press which ink was rolled over the raised surface of movable hand set letters with a wooden frame.

6.1.1.1. It was carved from wood

6.1.2. Gutenberg used screw type for presssing grapes and olive seeds

6.1.2.1. a moveable type is a system of printing that uses movable componets to reproduce the elements of a document.

6.1.3. Gutenbergs father worked at the mint

6.1.3.1. Metal type was quick and durable

6.2. Gutenberg began to expierment with metal typography.

6.2.1. the first moveable type system was in china

6.2.1.1. To make his metal type he devised an alloy of lead, tin, and antimony

6.2.2. A matrix is a hard metal punch hammered into a softer copper bar.

6.2.2.1. The first book to be printed was the bible

6.2.2.1.1. Four major printing process still utilized today are 1. relief 2. intaglio 3.porous 4. lithography

6.3. Gutenberg made oil based ink too.

6.3.1. The Gutenberg Press impacted communication by... 1. perfected script and made it easier to read 2. books made more rapidly 3. current information could be shared locally and around the world 4. cost decreased allowing more people to buy 5. demand grew. population became more literate 6. greater variety and different language of books 7. papermaking industries grew, and book trade began to flourish 8. economies became stronger

7. The linotype machine

7.1. Clephane was looking for for ways to pmprove the printing process.

7.1.1. James o. Clephane created the only typewriter that became commercially successful

7.1.1.1. A slug is the assembled line of type is then cast as a single pieces.

7.1.1.1.1. The newspaper industry changed as a result of the Linotype machine because made it possible for a small number of operators to set type for more pages on a daily basis

7.1.2. The Linotype keyboard had 90 characters, no shift keys so uppercase and lowercase letters had separate keys.

7.1.2.1. The first Linotype machine was installed in New York tribune in July 1886.

7.1.2.1.1. The name Linotype came from the fact that it produces an entire line of metal type at once.

7.2. Blue Keys were used for punctuation, didigts, small capital letters and fixed width spaces.

7.2.1. White keys were used for uppercase letters.

7.2.1.1. Black keys were used for lowercase letters.

7.2.1.1.1. The machine allowed operators to allow type to be set mechanically rather than by hand

8. History of photography

8.1. the 4th century camera obscura was used used for a way to observe light.

8.1.1. The name photography came from the words light and writing.

8.2. a camera obscura was an optical device that projects an image of its surroundings onto a screen.

8.2.1. Daguerre invented the first practical photographic process.

8.2.2. That is called the daguerreotype process.

8.3. the camera obscura in the 17th and 18th centuries shrunk to the size of a portable box.

8.3.1. William Fox invented the Calotype process.

8.3.2. he exposed onto a light sensittive paper producing paper negative

8.3.3. Archer is credited with the invention of the wet collodion process,glass plates were used as negatives and it was much faster

8.4. richard maddox is credited with the invention of the dry process richard maddox.