Unit 5 Cognition

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Unit 5 Cognition by Mind Map: Unit 5 Cognition

1. Memory

1.1. 3 stage processing model of memory

1.1.1. Sensory memory

1.1.1.1. Immediate, brief recording of sensory infomation

1.1.2. Short-term memory

1.1.2.1. Holds few items briefly before it is forgotten

1.1.2.2. Example

1.1.2.2.1. Phone number

1.1.3. Long-term memory

1.1.3.1. Permanent and limitless storehouse

1.1.3.2. Examples

1.1.3.2.1. Knowledge

1.1.3.2.2. Skills

1.1.3.2.3. Experiences

1.1.3.3. Long-Term Potentiation (LTP)

1.1.3.3.1. Increase in synapse

1.1.3.4. Types of long-term memory

1.1.3.4.1. Explicit (declarative) memory

1.1.3.4.2. Implicit (nondeclarative) memory

1.2. Registering memory

1.2.1. Storage

1.2.1.1. Retaining information

1.2.1.2. Sensory Register

1.2.1.2.1. Echoic (sound)

1.2.1.2.2. Iconic (visual)

1.2.2. Encoding

1.2.2.1. Getting information into brain

1.2.2.2. Effortful processing

1.2.2.2.1. Requires conscious effort

1.2.2.2.2. Rehearsal

1.2.2.2.3. Mnemonic devices

1.2.2.2.4. Imagery

1.2.2.2.5. Chunking

1.2.2.2.6. Hierarchies

1.2.2.3. Automatic processing

1.2.2.3.1. Unconscious

1.2.2.3.2. Example

1.2.2.4. Parallel processing

1.2.2.4.1. Processing aspects of a problem simultaneously

1.2.2.5. Methods of encoding

1.2.2.5.1. Visual encoding

1.2.2.5.2. Acoustic encoding

1.2.2.5.3. Semantic encoding

1.2.3. Retrieval

1.2.3.1. Getting information out of your brain

1.2.3.2. Retrieval cues

1.2.3.2.1. Provides guidance to where to "look" for piece of information in long-term memory

1.2.3.3. Recall

1.2.3.3.1. Measure of memory in which person must retrieve

1.2.3.3.2. Example

1.2.3.4. Memory Interference

1.2.3.4.1. Proactive Inference

1.2.3.4.2. Retroactive Inference

1.2.3.4.3. Repression

1.2.3.5. Déjà vu

1.2.3.5.1. Feeling of having experienced a situation

1.2.3.6. State dependent memory

1.2.3.6.1. Having to remember by putting one back into the same state (location, emotion)

1.3. Disorders

1.3.1. Amnesia

1.3.1.1. Loss of memory

1.3.1.2. Retrograde Amnesia

1.3.1.2.1. Loss of memory of events that have already occurred

1.3.1.3. Anterograde Amnesia

1.3.1.3.1. Loss in ability to create new memories

1.4. False memories

1.4.1. Misinformation effect

1.4.1.1. Incorporating misleading info into one's memory of an event

1.4.2. Source amnesia

1.4.2.1. Attribution of wrong source to an event we have experienced, heard, read, or imagined about

1.4.3. Mood congruent memory

1.4.3.1. Emotions that accompany good/bad events

1.4.3.2. Mood & past events interpret current events

2. Thinking, Problem Solving, and Language

2.1. Language

2.1.1. Spoken, written, signed words & what we combine them to communicate meaning

2.1.2. Phonemes

2.1.2.1. Smallest distinctive sound unit

2.1.3. Morphemes

2.1.3.1. Smallest unit that carries meaning

2.1.3.2. May be part of word

2.1.3.2.1. Suffixes

2.1.3.2.2. Prefixes

2.1.3.3. Example

2.1.3.3.1. PREorder

2.1.4. Semantics

2.1.4.1. Set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, sentences

2.1.4.2. The study of meaning

2.1.5. Syntax

2.1.5.1. Rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences

2.1.6. Language Development

2.1.6.1. Babbling stage

2.1.6.1.1. Begin at 4 months

2.1.6.1.2. Speech development

2.1.6.1.3. Spontaneous uttering of various sounds

2.1.6.2. One-word stage

2.1.6.2.1. Speech development

2.1.6.2.2. Age 1-2

2.1.6.2.3. Speaking in single words

2.1.6.3. Two-word stage

2.1.6.3.1. Speech development

2.1.6.3.2. Age 2

2.1.6.3.3. Speaking in two-worded statements

2.1.6.3.4. Example

2.1.6.4. Telegraphic speech

2.1.6.4.1. Early speech stage

2.1.6.4.2. Child speaks like a telegram

2.1.6.4.3. Nouns and verbs

2.1.6.4.4. Example

2.1.6.5. Critical Period

2.1.6.5.1. Hard time learning language if child is not exposed in this period

2.2. Problem Solving

2.2.1. Algorithms

2.2.1.1. Methodical, logical rule or procedure

2.2.1.2. Guarantees solving problems

2.2.2. Heuristics

2.2.2.1. Simple thinking strategy

2.2.2.2. Allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently

2.2.2.3. Faster than algorithms

2.2.2.4. More error-prone than algorithms

2.2.2.5. Representativeness Heuristic

2.2.2.5.1. Judging likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent/match particular prototypes

2.2.2.6. Availability Heuristic

2.2.2.6.1. Estimating likelihodd of events based on availability in memory

2.2.2.6.2. Vivid memory = presume such events as commom

2.2.3. Insight

2.2.3.1. Sudden, novel realization of solution to problem

2.2.3.2. Contrasts with strategy-based solutions

2.2.4. Intuition

2.2.4.1. Effortless, immediate, automatic feeling/thought

2.2.4.2. Contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning

2.2.5. Obstacles of Problem Solving

2.2.5.1. Confirmation Bias

2.2.5.1.1. Searching of info to support our preconceptions

2.2.5.1.2. Ignoring/distorting contradictory evidence

2.2.5.2. Fixation

2.2.5.2.1. Inability to see problem from a new perspective

2.2.5.3. Mental set

2.2.5.3.1. Approaching problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past

2.2.5.4. Functional Fixedness

2.2.5.4.1. Thinking of things only in terms of their usual functions, an impediment to problem solving

2.2.5.5. Overconfidence

2.2.5.5.1. More confident than correct

2.2.5.5.2. Over estimating accuracy of our beliefs and judgments

2.2.5.6. Belief perseverance

2.2.5.6.1. Clinging to initial conception after basis on which they were formed had been discredited

2.3. Thinking

2.3.1. Creativity

2.3.1.1. Ability to produce novel, valuable ideas

2.3.2. Framing

2.3.2.1. Way an issue is posed

2.3.2.2. How an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments

2.3.2.3. Example

2.3.2.3.1. 90% live from surgery VS 10% die from surgery