Unit 5 Cognition

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Unit 5 Cognition by Mind Map: Unit 5 Cognition

1. Memory

1.1. 3 stage processing model of memory

1.1.1. Sensory memory Immediate, brief recording of sensory infomation

1.1.2. Short-term memory Holds few items briefly before it is forgotten Example Phone number

1.1.3. Long-term memory Permanent and limitless storehouse Examples Knowledge Skills Experiences Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) Increase in synapse Types of long-term memory Explicit (declarative) memory Implicit (nondeclarative) memory

1.2. Registering memory

1.2.1. Storage Retaining information Sensory Register Echoic (sound) Iconic (visual)

1.2.2. Encoding Getting information into brain Effortful processing Requires conscious effort Rehearsal Mnemonic devices Imagery Chunking Hierarchies Automatic processing Unconscious Example Parallel processing Processing aspects of a problem simultaneously Methods of encoding Visual encoding Acoustic encoding Semantic encoding

1.2.3. Retrieval Getting information out of your brain Retrieval cues Provides guidance to where to "look" for piece of information in long-term memory Recall Measure of memory in which person must retrieve Example Memory Interference Proactive Inference Retroactive Inference Repression Déjà vu Feeling of having experienced a situation State dependent memory Having to remember by putting one back into the same state (location, emotion)

1.3. Disorders

1.3.1. Amnesia Loss of memory Retrograde Amnesia Loss of memory of events that have already occurred Anterograde Amnesia Loss in ability to create new memories

1.4. False memories

1.4.1. Misinformation effect Incorporating misleading info into one's memory of an event

1.4.2. Source amnesia Attribution of wrong source to an event we have experienced, heard, read, or imagined about

1.4.3. Mood congruent memory Emotions that accompany good/bad events Mood & past events interpret current events

2. Thinking, Problem Solving, and Language

2.1. Language

2.1.1. Spoken, written, signed words & what we combine them to communicate meaning

2.1.2. Phonemes Smallest distinctive sound unit

2.1.3. Morphemes Smallest unit that carries meaning May be part of word Suffixes Prefixes Example PREorder

2.1.4. Semantics Set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, sentences The study of meaning

2.1.5. Syntax Rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences

2.1.6. Language Development Babbling stage Begin at 4 months Speech development Spontaneous uttering of various sounds One-word stage Speech development Age 1-2 Speaking in single words Two-word stage Speech development Age 2 Speaking in two-worded statements Example Telegraphic speech Early speech stage Child speaks like a telegram Nouns and verbs Example Critical Period Hard time learning language if child is not exposed in this period

2.2. Problem Solving

2.2.1. Algorithms Methodical, logical rule or procedure Guarantees solving problems

2.2.2. Heuristics Simple thinking strategy Allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently Faster than algorithms More error-prone than algorithms Representativeness Heuristic Judging likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent/match particular prototypes Availability Heuristic Estimating likelihodd of events based on availability in memory Vivid memory = presume such events as commom

2.2.3. Insight Sudden, novel realization of solution to problem Contrasts with strategy-based solutions

2.2.4. Intuition Effortless, immediate, automatic feeling/thought Contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning

2.2.5. Obstacles of Problem Solving Confirmation Bias Searching of info to support our preconceptions Ignoring/distorting contradictory evidence Fixation Inability to see problem from a new perspective Mental set Approaching problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past Functional Fixedness Thinking of things only in terms of their usual functions, an impediment to problem solving Overconfidence More confident than correct Over estimating accuracy of our beliefs and judgments Belief perseverance Clinging to initial conception after basis on which they were formed had been discredited

2.3. Thinking

2.3.1. Creativity Ability to produce novel, valuable ideas

2.3.2. Framing Way an issue is posed How an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments Example 90% live from surgery VS 10% die from surgery