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AS Module 1
by Mr Moyes
# AS Module 1

## Fluids

### Density

### Flow

### Viscosity

### Forces

## Solids

### key terms

### Stretching solids

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Density = mass / volume

Pressure = height x density x gravitational field strength

Laminar Flow, At low Flow rates laminar flow occurs, with smooth streamlines and very little friction between layers. It has a conical velocity profile.

Turbulent Flow, At high flow rates turbulent flow occurs, with eddies and a flat velocity profile.

Temperature, The higher the temperature the lower the viscosity.

Experiment, liquid flowing through a small tube with a constant head of pressure. Measure time for volume of liquid to flow through. Repeat for range of temperatures of liquid

Viscous Drag, When objects move through fluids they experience viscous drag. This depends on the viscosity of the fluid., Stokes Law F=6πnrv

Terminal velocity, When weight = viscous drag + upthrust the object stops accelerating and reaches terminal velocity

Upthrust, The upwards force on an object in a fluid. The upthrust equals the weight of fluid displaced, an object floats if upthrust = weight

Hard, Whether or not it can be scratched by other materials.

Tough, How well it can withstand impacts, measured by the area under a stress strain graph

Brittle, An object that does not deform plastically

Malleable, Can be hammered into shape

Ductile, Can be drawn into wire

Stiff, The more force needed to achieve a fixed extension the stiffer the material. The greater the gradient of stress strain graph the stiffer.

Strong, How much force is needed to break it. The higher the line goes on a force extension graph the stronger.

Stress, The extension / original length

Strain, New node

Youngs Modulus

Stress Strain Graphs