Density = mass / volume
Pressure = height x density x gravitational field strength
Laminar Flow, At low Flow rates laminar flow occurs, with smooth streamlines and very little friction between layers. It has a conical velocity profile.
Turbulent Flow, At high flow rates turbulent flow occurs, with eddies and a flat velocity profile.
Temperature, The higher the temperature the lower the viscosity.
Experiment, liquid flowing through a small tube with a constant head of pressure. Measure time for volume of liquid to flow through. Repeat for range of temperatures of liquid
Viscous Drag, When objects move through fluids they experience viscous drag. This depends on the viscosity of the fluid., Stokes Law F=6πnrv
Terminal velocity, When weight = viscous drag + upthrust the object stops accelerating and reaches terminal velocity
Upthrust, The upwards force on an object in a fluid. The upthrust equals the weight of fluid displaced, an object floats if upthrust = weight
Hard, Whether or not it can be scratched by other materials.
Tough, How well it can withstand impacts, measured by the area under a stress strain graph
Brittle, An object that does not deform plastically
Malleable, Can be hammered into shape
Ductile, Can be drawn into wire
Stiff, The more force needed to achieve a fixed extension the stiffer the material. The greater the gradient of stress strain graph the stiffer.
Strong, How much force is needed to break it. The higher the line goes on a force extension graph the stronger.
Stress, The extension / original length
Strain, New node
Stress Strain Graphs