Thinking, Problem Solving, and Language

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Thinking, Problem Solving, and Language by Mind Map: Thinking, Problem Solving, and Language

1. language - Our spoken, written, or signed words and how we communicate it

1.1. Stages

1.1.1. babbling stage - The first stage of productive language (starts at 4 months of age)

1.1.2. one word stage - The stage when babies can speak single words (at 1 year of age)

1.2. Parts of speech

1.2.1. morphemes - Smallest unit of language that carries meaning (ex: “s” for plual, “-ed” to indicate the past)

1.2.2. syntax - organization of sentences, sentence structure

1.3. framing - the way an issue is posed, how the wording of a question can affect the response

1.4. Theories on Language

1.4.1. Chomsky

1.4.1.1. inborn universal grammar - Chomsky’s idea that all languages have the same grammar structure

1.4.2. Skinner

1.5. statistical learning - Children can statistically analyze which syllables most often go together. (In the phrase “United Nations,” children can sense that the word “United” and “nations” goes together because they analyze the fact that statistically, those syllable most often go together. They can also determine word breaks in our speaking. (This is all before our 1st birthday)

2. Thinking

2.1. intuition - Effortless, automatic feeling or thought

2.2. creativity - the ability to create novel and valuable ideas

2.2.1. 5 Components of Creativity

2.2.1.1. Expertise (building blocks of knowledge)

2.2.1.2. Imaginative thinking skills (to use your imagination to see patterns, see things in a new way)

2.2.1.3. Venturesome personality (able to tolerate risk and courageous)

2.2.1.4. Intrinsic memory (Being driven by interest rather than external pressure)

2.2.1.5. A creative environment that sparks and supports creativity

2.3. framing - the way an issue is posed, how the wording of a question can affect the response

3. Problem Solving

3.1. How to solve them

3.1.1. heuristic - Using judgement to solve problems, more simple and error prone than algorithms

3.2. Obstacles to Solving Problems

3.2.1. fixation - the inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective