MITE 6330

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MITE 6330 by Mind Map: MITE 6330

1. Learning Theory

1.1. Behaviorism

1.1.1. Definition

1.1.1.1. Environment-based

1.1.1.2. A passive process

1.1.1.3. Can be measured

1.1.1.4. Focus on repeating patterns

1.1.2. Assumptions

1.1.2.1. 1. Observable behavior is more important than internal thought processes

1.1.2.2. 2. Instead of individual learner, the environment shapes behavior

1.1.2.3. 3. Applying the principles of contiguity and reinforcement

1.1.3. Implication on Instructional Design

1.1.3.1. Focus on environment

1.1.3.2. Predictable Learning outcome

1.1.3.3. Precise instructional objectives with measurable goals

1.1.4. Strengths and Weakness

1.1.4.1. Able to find quick responses to well-defined problems

1.1.4.2. The performance is predictable

1.1.4.3. The model is fragile when the stimuli is absent

1.1.4.4. Instructional design is costly and time-consuming

1.1.4.5. Hard to maintain reinforcement

1.1.5. Methods

1.1.5.1. Online Quiz

1.1.5.1.1. ProProfs

1.1.5.2. Repetitive Execise

1.2. Cognitivism

1.2.1. Definition

1.2.1.1. Learner-based

1.2.1.2. Unique among different people

1.2.1.3. Focus on internal knowledge structure

1.2.2. Assumptions

1.2.2.1. 1. An existing knowledge structure must be present in order to compare and process new information

1.2.2.2. 2. Learning process must be designed uniquely for different human beings

1.2.3. Implication on Instructional Design

1.2.3.1. Focus on learner

1.2.3.2. Finite Learning outcome

1.2.4. Strengths and Weakness

1.2.4.1. Relevant knowledge

1.2.4.2. long-term memory

1.2.4.3. Suitable for describing higher levels of learning

1.2.4.4. Prerequisite knowledge is required

1.2.4.5. Instructional design is costly and time-consuming

1.2.4.6. Fixed expectation limits the potential of the learning

1.2.5. Methods

1.2.5.1. Puzzles

1.2.5.2. Memory cards

1.2.5.3. Picture tutorial instruction

1.2.5.4. Videos

1.2.5.4.1. YouTube

1.3. Constructivism

1.3.1. Definition

1.3.1.1. Learner-based (including prior experience)

1.3.1.2. A active process

1.3.2. Assumptions

1.3.2.1. 1. Learning is an adaptive activity.

1.3.2.2. 2. Learning is situated in the context where it occurs.

1.3.2.3. 3. Knowledge is constructed by the learner.

1.3.2.4. 4. Experience and prior understanding play a role in learning

1.3.2.5. 5. There is resistance to change.

1.3.2.6. 6. Social interaction plays a role in learning.

1.3.3. Implications on Instructional Design

1.3.3.1. Consider learner's prior knowledge

1.3.3.2. Open-ended in expectation of learning outcome

1.3.4. Strengths and Weakness

1.3.4.1. Learners can create individual ideas about the information

1.3.4.2. Promoting learners' interpretations and interests in learning

1.3.4.3. Hard to integrate learners with different backgrounds

1.3.5. Methods

1.3.5.1. Online Discussion

1.3.5.1.1. Edistorm

1.3.5.2. Online Forum

1.3.5.3. Group Presentation

2. Instructional Theory

2.1. Elaboration theory

2.2. Conversation Theory

2.3. Situated Learning

2.4. Gagne's Nine Events of Instruction

2.4.1. A Taxonomy of learning Outcomes

2.4.1.1. Cognitive Domain: Cognitive Strategies, intellectual Skills, Verbal Information

2.4.1.1.1. Learning thinking creatively

2.4.1.1.2. Guiding and controlling their own learning

2.4.1.1.3. Learning independently

2.4.1.1.4. Learning outcomes are not easy to assess

2.4.1.2. Affective Domain: Attitudes

2.4.1.2.1. Information Component: Learners must know the attitudes before the response.

2.4.1.2.2. Behavioral Component: The details of response

2.4.1.2.3. Emotional Component: Feelings about the personal action

2.4.1.3. Psychomotor Domain: Motor Skills

2.4.2. Conditions of Learning

2.4.3. Nine Events of Instruction

2.4.3.1. 1. Gain Attention

2.4.3.2. 2. Inform learners of objectives

2.4.3.3. 3. Simulate recall of prior learning

2.4.3.4. 4. Present the content

2.4.3.5. 5. Provide learning guidance

2.4.3.6. 6. Elicit performance

2.4.3.7. 7. Provide feedback

2.4.3.8. 8.Assess performance

2.4.3.9. 9.Enhance retention and transfer

2.5. Bloom's Taxonomy

3. Instructional Design

3.1. Design Models

3.1.1. ASSURE Model

3.1.1.1. Analyze learners

3.1.1.2. State objectives

3.1.1.3. Select methods, media and materials

3.1.1.4. Utilize media and materials

3.1.1.5. Require learner participation

3.1.1.6. Evaluate and revise

3.1.2. ADDIE

3.1.2.1. Analysis

3.1.2.1.1. Who are the target people?

3.1.2.1.2. What is the learning objectives?

3.1.2.1.3. What is the task of the project?

3.1.2.1.4. What strategy is going to be used?

3.1.2.1.5. Making the Prototypes for the project

3.1.2.2. Design

3.1.2.2.1. Making an outline of project content

3.1.2.2.2. Selecting media

3.1.2.2.3. Selecting technology tools

3.1.2.2.4. Selecting delivery methods

3.1.2.2.5. Developing materials

3.1.2.3. Development

3.1.2.3.1. Delivering the learning objectives by the methods selected

3.1.2.3.2. Making experiment to assure the practicability

3.1.2.3.3. Integrating the project

3.1.2.4. Inplementation

3.1.2.4.1. Finishing the evaluation plan

3.1.2.4.2. Completing the test

3.1.2.4.3. Collecting reviews

3.1.2.5. Evaluation

3.1.2.5.1. Making previous assessment for the project

3.1.2.5.2. Setting the goals of learning outcome

3.1.2.5.3. Making the project plan

3.1.3. Dick and Carey System Approach

3.1.3.1. Identifying the goals

3.1.3.2. Analysis

3.1.3.3. Revise instruction

3.1.3.3.1. Performance objective

3.1.3.3.2. Assessment instruments

3.1.3.3.3. Instructional strategy

3.1.3.3.4. Instructional materials

3.1.3.3.5. Conduction

3.1.3.4. Final design and conduct summative evaluation

3.1.4. Waterfall

3.1.5. Kemp design model

3.2. Five most important steps of instructional desgin

3.2.1. Analysis

3.2.1.1. Identify problems

3.2.1.2. Providing possible solutions

3.2.2. Design

3.2.2.1. Proper instructional theory

3.2.2.2. Storyboard and phototype

3.2.2.3. User interface

3.2.3. Development

3.2.3.1. Generating detailed materials

3.2.4. Implementation

3.2.4.1. Assuring the project delivering the instruction

3.2.4.1.1. Alpha testing

3.2.4.1.2. Beta testing

3.2.5. Evaluation

3.2.5.1. Degree of the completion

3.2.5.1.1. Learners' participation

3.2.5.1.2. Learners' performance

3.3. Advantages and limitations

3.3.1. Encourages designers to design the model in learners' perspective

3.3.2. Designed instructions are effective, efficient and appealing

3.3.3. The documentation of design model allows individuals to participate in implementing the instruction

3.3.4. Easy to be diffused and adopted

3.3.5. Beneficial to the development of alternative deliver systems

3.3.6. Achieves congruence among objectives, activities, and evaluations

3.3.7. limited applicability: unable to identify goals in advance

3.3.8. Instructional design process and principles may not be totally employed

4. Group Project

4.1. Stage 1: Analysis

4.1.1. Problem Identification: To assist working people to learn the skills of Excel and PowerPoint

4.1.2. Contextual Analysis: Based on e-learning model

4.1.3. Audience Analysis: Working people with learning talent

4.1.4. Content Analysis: Excel and PPT

4.1.5. Delivery Analysis: Tutorial and presentation (Combine the three learning theories)

4.1.5.1. Behaviorism: Learners must take quiz and do the homework to cultivate automaticity

4.1.5.2. Cognitivism: Tutorial PDFs and videos in the course provide a imaginary learning environment for learners to strengthen their long-term memories

4.1.5.3. Constructivism: Learners can express their understanding in Individual assignment, exchange information with others in group assignment and get feedback in online forum.

4.2. Stage 2: Design

4.2.1. Objectives

4.2.2. Sequences: Follow the Gagne's Nine Events of Instruction

4.2.3. Storyboard and Prototype: A wiki page simulates the e-learning website for the course

4.3. Stage 3: Development

4.3.1. Quiz design

4.3.2. Tutorial video design

4.3.3. Course structure design

4.4. Stage 4: Implementation

4.4.1. Alpha testing by group members

4.4.2. Beta testing by selected learners

4.5. Stage 5: Evaluation

4.5.1. Collecting feedback from learners

4.5.2. Summary of learners' performance