Chapter 21

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Chapter 21 by Mind Map: Chapter 21

1. The Industrial Revolution

1.1. Intro

1.1.1. A term invented by French and English writers to capture the drama of contemporary change and to draw a parallel with the French Revolution

1.1.2. Industrial revolution: The transformation of life in the western world over several decades in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries as a result of the introduction of steam-driven machinery, large factories, and a new working class

1.1.3. It began in England in the 1770s and 1780s in textile manufacturing and spread from there across the continent Industrialization and urbanization accelerated suddenly because governments across Europe encouraged the railroad construction and the mechanization if manufacturing Many officials, preachers, and intellectuals worried that unchecked growth would destroy traditional social relationships and create problems

1.2. Roots of Industrialization

1.2.1. Inventions Key breakthrough happened when James watt developed an efficient steam machine that could be used to pump water from coal mines or power machinery in textile factories Coal fired the steam engines that drove the textile machinery, innovation reinforced each other George Stephenson built his steam engine the rocket Englishman John Kay patented the flying shuttle This allowed a weaver to "throw" yarn across the loom rather than draw it back and forth by hand. When the flying shuttle started to be used widespread, weavers could produce cloth more quickly than spinners could produce thread (shortage of thread, too much cloth)

1.2.2. Factors of making England the first site of the industrial revolution Population increased more than 50% Manufacturers wanted to produce more, cheaper cotton cloth They were eager to introduce steam-driven machinery to increase output and gradually established factories to house the new machines and concentrate the labor of their workers England had a good supply of private investment capital from overseas trade and commercial profits Because it was ready to draw cotton from the plantations in Caribbean islands and USA, and it had the natural resources at home such as coal and iron If English and Scottish inventors who designed machinery were successful, they would move up in the social ladder These inventors shared a culture of informal science education by learning from societies and popular lectures Agricultural revolution from the 18th century allowed England to produce food more efficiently This freed some agricultural workers to move to the new sites of manufacturing Cotton textile production skyrocketed

1.2.3. Textile manufacturing It expanded with the introduction of new machines and factories because of the spread of the "Putting-out" or the "domestic" system Since cloth was produced easily people began to wear night clothes (aka jammies!) this was rare in the past White, red, blue, yellow, green and pastel shades of cotton now replaced the black, grey, or brown of traditional wool (yay! More colors! ❤️

1.2.4. Workers in the textile industry They had few protection from the fluctuations in the market If the demand for cloth declined, manufactures did not buy the cloth that the families produced at home Hand loom weavers sometimes violently resisted the factories of the power looms that forced them out of work Like in England 1811 and 1812 groups of hand loom weavers wrecked the factories machinery and burned down mills in the Midlands, Yorkshire, and Lancashire

1.3. Engines of Change

1.3.1. Intro Steam engines changed a lot when the English engineer, George Stephenson perfected an engine to pull wagons along railroad tracks Every country wanted to set up a railroad system, which pushed industrialization from east to west across Europe

1.3.2. The Rise of the Railroad Using a railroad as a mode of transport developed after stephenson's invention of the steam powered locomotive New tracks Steam driven carriages could transport people and good to the cities and link coal and iron deposits to the factories Track mileage In 1840s track milage more than doubled in great Britain Untied States 1830s and 1840s had 9,000 miles of track 1835 Belgium opened the first european continental European railroad with state binds backed up by the British capital . 1850, the world had 23,500 miles of track, mostly in Western Europe Railroad building Urged industrial development as well as state power Demand for iron products accelerated industrial developments

1.3.3. Industrialization modes eastward I won't cover much, because it's mostly production numbers Belgium was the fastest growing industrial power on the continent Russia was really slow and industrialization would not take off until the end of the 19th century

1.3.4. Factories and Workers The acts, and treaty's and any written documents are REALLY IMPORTANT...KNOW THESE FOR THE QUIZ! Factory production expanded Local and national governments collected information about the workers and realized that the conditions were awful Government inquires often focused on WOMEN AND CHILDREN In Great Britain the Factory Act of 1833 outlawed the employment of children under the age of nine in textile mills and limited the workdays for those ages nine to thirteen to 9 hours a day, and ages thirteen to eighteen for 12 hours

1.4. Urbanization and it's consequences

1.4.1. Intro: Urbanization is the growth of towns and cities due to the movement of people from rural to urban areas, it was encouraged by the development of factories and railroads Population increased due to the massive rural emigration

1.4.2. Overcrowding and Disease Influx of people caused overcrowding in the cities, this was due to the housing stock expanding much more slowly than the population growth, and wages were not high enough for many workers to afford city rents Paris, 30,000 workers lived in lodging houses, 8 or 9 to a room no separation of gender Fountains In London, private companies that supplied water only turned on pumps in the poorer sections for only a few hours three days a week CHOLERA DID NOT KILL AS MANY AS TUBERCULOSIS DID

1.4.3. Middle-Class Fears Illegitimacy of babies Officials collected statistics on illegitimacy that seemed to bear out these fears The spreading of disease revealed tension just beneath the surface of urban life Middle/Upper class: lived in large, well appointed apartments or houses with more light, air, and water Lower class: lived in cramped upper floors, sometimes in the same apartment houses Middle class reforms thought the poor was under their level because of the circumstances of urban life Crime and drinking are hand in hand with sexual disorder Beer halls and pubs were all over the urban landscape Police officials thought London had 70,000 thieves and 80,000 prostitutes Reformers warning The reformers warned of a widening separation between the rich and poor and a strong sense of hostility between the two Clergymen joined physicians and humanitarians to make dire predictions

1.5. Agricultural Perils and Prosperity

1.5.1. Intro

1.5.2. The Explosion of Culture

1.6. The Varieties of Social Reform

1.6.1. Intro

1.6.2. The Religious impulse for Social reform

1.6.3. Education and Reform of the Poor

1.6.4. Domesticity and the Subordination of Women

1.7. Abuses and Reforms Overseas

1.7.1. Intro The ideal of colonialism often conflicted with the reality of economic interests European colonist went under a moments transformation

1.7.2. Abolition of Slavery Colonialism rose and fell with the enslavement if black Africans British religious groups, including the Quakers, took the lead to form Antislavery societies Government stuff British reforms had the abolition of slavery in the British a Empire in 1833 France- the new government of Louis Philipe against private meetings of slave traffic, and ended Frances participation in the 1830s Slave trade numbers Because of the increased participation by Spanish and Portuguese traders, slaves sold in the 1820s were almost the same amount as those sold in 1780s

1.7.3. Economic and Political Imperialism France invaded Algeria using an insult as its envoy and it eventually became part of france 70,000 people settled with the governments encouragement and it confiscated a lot of land of the native people (African Americans) British granted Canada more self determination in 1839 British annex Singapore, New Zealand, and increased their control of India due to the east India company The company tried to establish a regular trade with China and opium The Chinese government didn't allow western merchants to venture outside the city of (Guangzhou a.k.a. Canton) and banned the import of opium Reform organizations aimed to improve the lives of the fallen, not overturn the basic structure of political order and social hierarchy

1.8. Ideologies and Political Movements

2. Intro

2.1. Duke of Wellington- Named British prime minister

2.2. 1830 new railway line opened in Liver pool and Manchester

2.3. George Stephone- the rocket

2.3.1. 27 mph

2.4. Some gentlemen scattered to safety as it came down the tracks, but one man fell and was hit

2.4.1. William Huskisson was the first official casualty of the new railroad

2.5. Railroads are the most stringing symbol of the industrial revolution

2.6. Industrialization and rapid urban growth changed

2.6.1. Political conflicts

2.6.2. Social relations

2.6.3. Cultural concerns

2.6.4. And landscape

2.6.5. The changes were so great they called it the industrial revolution

2.7. Industrial revolution

2.7.1. The introduction of Steam powered machinery Large factories New working class This all transformed the life of the western world

2.7.2. Peasants streamed into the cities London's population grew by 130,000 In The 1830s Berlins population more than doubled between 1819 and 1849 Paris population expanded by 120,000 between 1841 and 1846 As a result of the population increase all these things increased as well

2.8. Industrial and urban growth increased the commentary on people wanting to reform socially

2.8.1. The people who warned about rising tensions were Painters Poets Novelists Many who wrote about social issues expected women to organize their homes as a domestic heaven for raising their children

2.9. Ideology

2.9.1. It was set to a boil by social ferments

2.9.2. It is a word that refers to a coherent set of social beliefs about the way political and social orders should be organized

2.9.3. The industrial revolution and the French Revolution set up for the development of a whole group of ideologies to explain the meaning of the changes taking place

2.9.4. People such as Nationalists, Liberals, Socialists, Communists offered competing orders of the social order they desired They all agreed change was necessary They disagreed on the means and the ends of change (how they should reform and what the end result should be) This came to the highest point in 1848