History -Russian revolution

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History -Russian revolution by Mind Map: History -Russian revolution

1. the civil war

1.1. Causes

1.1.1. Challenges of the bolsheviks social revolutionaires mensheviks Tsarists Former army officers former land lords political opponents white armies led by general YUDENICH and DENIKEN attacked from the west Admiral KOLCHAK attacked from the east

1.1.2. Czech legion prisoners of war mutinied as they were being taken across Russia took control of Trains-siberian railways supported KOLCHAK

1.2. events

1.2.1. 1918 Tsar and family killed

1.2.2. 1919 red army defeated admiral KOLCHAK British, French, Americans went home

1.2.3. 1920 last white army defeated in crimea

1.2.4. 1921 red army invaded Poland, defeated famine and disease throughout Russia millions dead

1.3. Why the BOLSHEVIKS won

1.3.1. whites army were disunited thousands of miles apart easy to fight one by one

1.3.2. TROTSKY brilliant leader of red army excellent war strategies clever tactics

1.3.3. Beliefs many Russians believed they were fighting for a better world others hated foreign armies army enthusiatic and determined

1.3.4. war communism factories nationalised military discipline in factories strikes made illegal surplus food handed over to the government rationing sufficent army supplies

1.3.5. Terror cheka murdered whites terror was used to ensure loyalty and unity

1.3.6. bolsheviks had moscow/petrograd=factories and supplies controlled railways=communication/supples

1.3.7. army of 300,000 men

2. Bloody sunday

2.1. 22nd January 1905

2.2. As they approached the troops paniked and open fired at the workers.

2.3. it is said that 96 people died and 333 wounded but the actual amount was about 1000 people dead and many more wounded.

2.3.1. hence the name ' bloody sunday'

2.4. this then sparked a wave of protesters.

2.5. a priest called Father Gapon, led a crowd of 200,000 workers through the streets of St Petersbourg to Tsar's winter palace. they intended to deliver a petition to Tsar, listening to their grievances, although Tsar was not in the palace.

3. long term causes of the russian revolution.

3.1. all the intitutions that supported the monarchy-such as the Church, the nobility and the faithful loyalty of the peasants-come from the middle ages.

3.2. meanwhile new modern forces were threatening the monarchy such as the middle class, and industrial working class and Marxism.

3.2.1. KARL MARX marx was a german jew who spent the majority of his life in exile as a result of his political beliefs. in his famous work, the communist manifesto. He outlined his theory of social change. this theory came to be known as marxism

4. NEP (new economic policy

4.1. cause

4.1.1. 1921 kronstadt sailors mutiny

4.2. Demanded

4.2.1. free speech

4.2.2. end to the war communism

4.2.3. free elections

4.2.4. free trade unions

4.3. bolsheviks concerned, bought in NEP.

4.3.1. it was opposed by some members of government as capitalism

4.3.2. but restored some prosperity

4.4. new small buisnesses

4.4.1. small factories returned to owners

4.4.2. small private buisnesses allowed

5. Provisional Government

5.1. they did nothing to try end the power of the soviets

5.2. the petrograd soviets were very powerful it built up a nationwide network of soviets which took their orders from it. Order number 1-forbid soviets and workers to obey the provisional government unless the soviets agreed.

5.3. Terrible conditions

5.3.1. inflation and hunger got worse because the war didn't end

5.3.2. they didn't manage to end the food shortages

5.4. Peasants

5.4.1. started taking land

5.4.2. they sent troops to take back land this made the peasants VERY angry

5.5. war

5.5.1. tried to continue the war. attacked austria in June 1917, but after initial success, the germans moved in and the russians were defeated.

5.5.2. there was naval mutiny

5.5.3. set up 'death squads' to kill deserters

5.6. Bolsheviks

5.6.1. LENIN published the plans for the 'april theses

5.6.2. 'Peace, Bread and land'

5.6.3. 'all power to the Soviets'


5.7.1. Tried to right-wing/pro-tsar army corp in august 1917.

5.7.2. provisional government had no control of the army

6. November revolution

6.1. events

6.1.1. 6th november - red guards take over bridges/ telephone exchanges

6.1.2. 7th november winter palace provisional government leaders arrested - red guards take over banks, government buildings and railways

6.1.3. 8th november new communist government

6.2. why they succeeded

6.2.1. government

6.2.2. terrible conditions

6.2.3. peasants

6.2.4. War

6.2.5. Bolsheviks

6.2.6. Kornilov

6.2.7. 'peace,bread land'

6.2.8. party newspaper Pravda (means truth)

6.2.9. Financed publicity campaigns Germans supported LENIN to remove russia from the war

6.2.10. LENIN Brilliant leader great organiser single minded red guards well trained dedicated

6.2.11. central committee sent orders to soviets who sent them to factories

6.2.12. demanded total obedience

7. LENINS russia

7.1. government changes

7.1.1. election November 1917 results: Bolsheviks = 175 seats social revolutionaries = 370 seats

7.2. :lenin did

7.2.1. closed asembilies

7.2.2. killed objectors

7.2.3. ruled by decree

7.3. Brest-litovsk

7.3.1. Bolsheviks ended the war in 1917

7.3.2. treaty gave good agricultural and industrial land to germany

7.3.3. Russia lost Ukrane Estonia Latvia Lithuania

7.4. Communist state

7.4.1. land taken from nobles and given to peasants

7.4.2. Elected committees of workers controlled factories

7.5. Communist society

7.5.1. Religions banned

7.5.2. churches destroyed

7.5.3. priests killed

7.6. labour law

7.6.1. 8 hour day

7.6.2. unemployment pay

7.6.3. pensions

7.7. education

7.7.1. science encouraged

7.7.2. history and latin banned

7.7.3. people taught to read

7.8. Communist morals

7.8.1. divorce allowed

7.8.2. abortion allowed

7.8.3. greater equality for women

7.9. Terror

7.9.1. totalitarian state

7.9.2. CHEKA arrested and killed opponents

7.9.3. censorship

7.9.4. Lenin said a 'dictatorship of the poletariat was needed until russia was fully communist'

7.10. war communism

7.10.1. introduced during the civil war

7.10.2. factories taken over

7.10.3. strikes made illegal strikers will be shot

7.10.4. rationing

7.10.5. peasants forced to give surplus food to government

8. february revolution

8.1. WHY?

8.1.1. weaknesses peasants poverty corrupt autocracy okhrana censorship lack of support

8.1.2. war army badly led army poorly equiped huge defeats tannenburg Japan anger and unrest

8.1.3. Attacks and oppostian wanted communist government DUMA angry over lack of power didn't support the government social revolutionary party social democratic party mensheviks bolsheviks

8.1.4. reforms failed STOLYPIN had tried Primeminister let kulaks buy their own land last chance to reform was lost

8.1.5. industrialisation created huge urban workforce terrible condition disaffection in petrograd


8.2.1. 7 th March steel workers go on strike

8.2.2. 8th March international womens day bread riots

8.2.3. 10th March half workforce on strike Tsarina orders troops to stop them

8.2.4. 11th March troops fired at crowds tsar dissolves the DUMA

8.2.5. 12th March soldiers joined riots DUMA set up a 12 man 'provisional government' led by KERENSKY soldiers and workers set up 'petrograd soviets'

8.2.6. 15th March Tsar abdicates

8.3. Army abandoned Tsar

8.3.1. 8th March 1917 there were riots in petrograd about the food shortages and the war

8.3.2. 12th March 1917 the soldiers mutinied and refused to put down the riots. GOVERNMENT LOST CONTROL OF THE COUNTRY

8.3.3. 13th March 1917 Duma went to tsar and told him to abdicate

9. Tsar and tsarina

9.1. unpopular

9.2. hated after bloody sunday

9.3. tsar blamed for WW1 defeats

9.4. tsarina left in charge while Tsar is in charge of the army