Capitalist Economic System
Communist Economic System
After the Soviets cut off West Berlin from getting supplies by truck and train, an eleven month airlift took place. British and American forces flew supplies into Berlin non-stop, forcing the U.S.S.R. to eventually give up.
1956 After a series of protest the government collapsed, and the people tried to create a democratic and liberal system. As a satellite state, the USSR would not allow this to happen to Hungary. They sent in troops and tanks to destroy the resistance.
After the failed Bay of Pigs invasion of 1961, Fidel Castro aligned Cuba with the Soviet Union and arranged to allow the USSR to place Ballistic Missile sites in Cuba. This would give the Soviets a quick strike nuclear advantage over the US. The US blockaded the island of Cuba, hoping to keep Soviet ships form delivering more missile components. After 13 very tense days, an arrangement was made with the USSR and the missile sites would be removed provided America did the same in Turkey and Italy, as well they had to promise to never invade Cuba.
The Vietnam War 1963-1975 After WW2 Vietnam was split, the North was Communist, the South was not.North Vietnam invaded the South to make Vietnam whole again. With the assistance of US forces a 12 year war followed. Ultimately the US was not able to win the conflict, and pulled its forces out in 1975.
Similar to the Hungarian uprising, the people of Czechoslovakia in called for governmental reforms and for a democratic system to be put in place in the spring of 1968. The Soviets again sent in troops and tanks to crush opposition, and to restore a pro-communist system.
1979-1989 In 1979 a civil are broke out between the communist government of Afghanistan and Islamic rebels. The Soviet Union, fearing an Islamic state to the south, fought for the communist government. The rebel forces with assistance from the US was able to force a Soviet withdrawal by 1989.
Ideology refers to, in this case the differences between American and Soviets political and economic systems. See the branch bellow on ideology.
As the Second World War was coming to an end the Soviets were liberating areas in Europe that had been held by the Nazi's. At wars end, the Soviets did not let these areas go. They set up pro-Soviet governments in these nations, and oversaw them throughout the Cold War. The idea was that in the event of an invasion from the West, forces would first have to fight their way through the satellite states - it served as a buffer zone. The satellite states were: Albania Poland Bulgaria Romania Czechoslovakia East German Hungary
Throughout the Cold War, competition, primarily between the US & USSR existed to develop more and more powerful weapons. Specifically, nuclear weapons.
NATO - The North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Formed in 1949. Canada was one of 12 countries that formed an alliance in order to help stop the spread of Communism. The concept of "Collective Security" was key to NATO. An attack on any NATO nation would be considered an attack on all of them. The idea was to deter a Soviet attack.
Warsaw Pact - Soviet Equivalent to Nato
The North American Air Defence Command.Canada and the US began NORAD in the late 1950's. The idea was to protect air space for the continent of North America.63 Radar Stations were established in Canada's North as a Distant Early Warning Line (DEW Line) - the idea was to detect Soviet Bombers as they entered our air space and to give time for fighter intercepters to reach them.
Igor Gouzenko was a clerk in the Soviet embassy in Ottawa.He asked for "political asylum" and informed Canada of Soviet spy-rings that were in Canada.He and his family were forced to take on alternate identities and to live out their days in secrecy in fear of the reaction of the soviets.
Nicknamed after Canadian Prime Minister John Diefenbaker, these were a series of nuclear fallout shelters (bunkers) built to house the top military and government officials in the event of a nuclear attack.
Canada's contribution to the Arms Race was the Avro Arrow - at the time it was the most advanced fighter/interceptor in the world.With the advancement of soviet satellites and missile technology, fighters were not considered to be as important, that and the high cost of the Arrow resulted in the program being cancelled in early 1959.All completed planes, parts, and plans were destroyed to prevent the information from falling into enemy hands.
Beyond military alliances, Canada was also part of the formation of the UN - the United Nations. Canada contributed to the UN in many ways, however the most substantial way was in the creation of peacekeeping.
The Korean War represented Canada's first major action as part of the UN.North Korea, communist, had invaded the South in an attempt to make a unified communist country.South Korea asked the UN for help.
The Suez Crisis was a conflict over control of the Suez Canal in Egypt. Egypt had nationalized the canal, and France and Britain leveed for control by manufacturing a conflict between Israel and Egypt. When the USSR found out they threatened Paris and London with a nuclear strike.Lester B. Pearson, Canada's foreign affairs minister came up with the idea peacekeepers to help keep the situation from escalating. This was the beginning of UN peacekeepers.
Since its inception, Canada has been active in peacekeeping. As a middle power Canada is able to have influence on the world stage.
Canda is also involved with other organizations such as the G20, OAS, and WTO
Bilateral & Multilateral Decision-Making
The Persian Gulf