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Japan by Mind Map: Japan

1. Like the political system, the social system was very hierarchical. Much like the feudal system, you could not move out of your class.

1.1. The social system had the shoguns as the highest class then samurai/daimyo, farmers, artisans, merchants, outcasts and non-humans as the lowest class.

1.1.1. Shoguns were in charge of the Bakufu; a higher level of government.

1.1.2. Samurai were hereditary warriors (some were even daimyo) Samurai were originally prestigious warriors who were meant to protect the townspeople while the daimyo were waging war on each other. With Japan united and peaceful, samurai were no longer needed. So they were called on to do administrative purposes. They were taught to read and write along with many other skills so they could help govern a domain, manage affairs of a daimyo household and support daimyo residences in Edo.

1.1.3. Farmers were very respected in Japan because they provided rice to the people and rice was very important in Japan. However, with a privileged life the farmers were still kept under very restricting rules.They could not leave their land as the daimyo didn't want to loose any labour or profit and were required to dress a certain way. Eventually, more advanced technology was brought to Japan and agricultural productivity increased and taxes stopped increasing to stop the risk of rebellion. Some people often used rice to trade during the Edo period. There were two types of farmers. The honbyakusho and the hyakusho. Honbyakusho owned the homes, controlled the land plots and had jobs as supervisors. Hyakusho were the normal farmers who were forced to work and they couldn't own anything.

1.1.4. Artisans are normally what townspeople refer to in Japan as they mostly make up the people who live in the towns and cities. Artisans were skilled craftsmen who made objects for daily life, decorating homes and trade. During the Edo period, trade increased and the economy grew and so artisans gained more wealth.

1.1.5. Merchants were responsible for providing needed goods to the towns/cities. As the cities grew, merchants also gained more wealth and power and became very important as they established the banking industry.

1.1.6. "Outcasts" or "eta" had jobs dealing with death which was very frowned upon in Japan because it violated the Buddhist doctrines but were needed to be done. They dealt with slaughtering animals, disposing animal carcasses, committing executions and removing corpses. As a result, the "eta" were shunned and forced to live outside the village. Eta were also kept under strict rules. They could not have any other occupation than that appointed to them, could enter towns to sell items but were forbidden from shops and rarely had any chances to move classes as the "eta" class was hereditary.

1.1.7. "Non-humans" or "hinin" were inferior to society. They were not hereditary as the "hinin" were people who chose to spend there lives dealing with fortune telling, begging, acting and prostitution. They lived by their wits outside the hierarchy and this was frowned upon and why they were shunned so definitely. Any person of a higher class who was expelled and forced to join the "hinin". Despite being inferior, "hinin" met society's entertainment needs.

2. How did geography affect world view?

2.1. Neighbouring countries with dominating cultures had an influence on the culture of Japan.

2.1.1. China, Korea and Russia are the closest countries which had the most influence on Japan.

2.2. Isolation means a country is protected from other cultures so they can prosper and thrive.

2.2.1. Mountain barriers Mount Fuji

2.2.2. Islands Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu + 3000 smaller islands Ex: Okinawa Valued the sea since they were surrounded by it and its all they had in search of food.

3. How did the Edo era of great peace begin?

3.1. Shoguns are military leaders. Despite having an emperor, shoguns held the real power.

3.1.1. Due to three shoguns, Japan was untied as one where as before it consisted of 250+ smaller regions which were governed by Daimyo. Nobunaga 1534-1582 Reduced Buddhist control over politics. Introduced new administrative practices. Hideyoshi 1536-1598 Centralized government power. Created a society based on formal class structure. Created an army. Tokugawa 1542-1616 Established a government base in Edo. Finalized the unification. Daimyo are the feudal lords of Japan.

3.1.2. Emperors are the hereditary leaders of Japan. The emperor during the final unification of Japan was Go-Yozei.

4. How did the political system during the Edo period reflect world view?

4.1. The political system was very hierarchical. This reflects the belief of how everyone had a distinct role in society.

4.1.1. You can compare this system to the feudal system from Europe as no one was allowed to change their class.

4.1.2. The most important class was the Emperor and the shoguns. Although the Emperor ruled the land, the real power laid within the shogun since they were the military leaders and ruled the Bakufu (a high, centralized level of government, much similar to our federal government).

4.1.3. The second most important class consisted of daimyo and samurai. Daimyo were feudal lords who ruled the Han (local government). Meanwhile, samurai were hereditary warriors who defended the local people but some daimyo were samurai. Daimyo were kept under strict rules so they couldn't gain enough power or wealth to over throw the shogun. Rules included.... No contact between neighbouring daimyo, only one castle in each domain. must support public building projects, required to spend every second year in Edo, marriages must of permission of Bakufu, travel and ship building are forbidden. Daimyo were split into three sub classes. 1) most trusted and noble 2) nobles of the Tokugawa family 3) who opposed the shogun before he gained power How high a daimyo was ranked was very important to their daily life style. It determined the location and size of his residence at Edo, how many samurai he could bring to Edo, where he was seated in the audience chamber and his relationship with merchants and artisans.

5. Why did Japan isolate itself from much of the world?

5.1. Foreign influences are the main reason why Japan isolated itself. They wanted to keep their identity and culture.

5.1.1. Other countries were coming into Japan for trade but these countries tried to dominate Japan and so trading was limited to only one port; Nagasaki Bay. Countries were bringing missionaries to Japan and converting Japanese to Christianity. As an attempt to keep their control, the shoguns ordered all missionaries to leave and executed 26 Francisian missionaries. In 1635, the Bakufu passed a series of edicts called the National Seclusion Policy to strengthen their authority and keep a centralized government.Some of the edicts included Japanese are forbidden from leaving the country and foreigners were forbidden from entering the country. Any ships that disobeyed were burned with the crew/passengers executed.

5.1.2. Tokugawa was concerned about his people being exposed to western ideas and loosing their Japanese identities. He was also concerned about Europeans colonizing Japan like other parts of the world such as Mexico where the Aztec lived.

5.1.3. An example of foreign influence in Japan is how the Chinese brought Confucianism to Japanese culture. Confucianism believes that that relationships between human beings are important than with a god or higher being, everyone has a distinct role in society, the past is important, observation and questioning is the basis of education.

6. How did the social systems change during isolation?

7. How did communities change during isolation?

7.1. There were many roads throughout Japan so daimyo could get to Edo. Many merchants and artisans travelled along these roads and created settlements so they could attend to the daimyo's needs. Not only did they flock to the highways but they also flocked to castle towns and villages. This movement of middle class people caused a drastic change in the economy. Rural areas began to grow, causing cities to not be self sufficient and as a result the economies of rural and urban areas combined.

7.1.1. Due to this growth in the economy, there emerged three major, urban centres that were known to the Japanese as metropolises. One of the most important metropolises is Edo. It was a large city that the shogun chose as his government centre so he could easily trade with other metropolises and defend the city. Kyoto was the capital before the central government moved to Edo. It was chosen because it had river access to the sea, was defended by mountains but also had land routes through the mountains. The city is known for its refinement and beautiful luxury items such as silk, brocades and lacquer. Osaka developed around a protected harbour and became a major trading centre.Ships could easily dock there and it had river to ship goods to cites like Kyoto. Most of all, Osaka was famous for its Buddhist temple and 150 bridges that crossed the rivers

8. How did the popular culture of Japan change during isolation?

8.1. Just as the arts flourished during the Renaissance, they did so in Japan during the Edo period. Trade increased and cities began to grow as merchants became more wealthy and influential. They desired more luxury items and entertainment.

8.1.1. Theatres became more popular as more people desired entertainment. One theatre popular among all classes was the Kabuki theatre, Its had live action with wild plots and elaborate costumes/make-up. Meanwhile, it depicted Japanese daily life/culture as it focused on domestic dramas with moral dilemmas. Another popular theatre was the Banraku theatre. It featured puppet shows for adults. The actors at these theatres were all part of the "hinin" class.

8.1.2. Geishas were women employed in the entertainment business. They were trained to sing, dance, have tea ceremonies and organize flower arrangements. They reflected the cultural values of time.

8.1.3. A popular form of artwork among the Japanese were the woodblock images. Artists would get original paintings then carve all the major lines and details into a block of wood. Paint was applied and it was pressed to a canvas to create a replica of the painting. Most of these images depicted nature and daily activities among commoners. Since there were many copies. it was an inexpensive way for upper class men to get the paintings they wanted.

8.1.4. Not only did art flourish but literature did too. Commercial printing and publishing became popular in the 17th century.Although the printing press was widely available, the Japanese resorted back to wooden block techniques. Printing was a private industry but it could not have writings on taboo subjects such as Christianity.By the 17th century there were books printed on almost every subject.

9. How did the lives of samurai change during isolation?

9.1. Before the Edo period, samurai were honourable warriors that were skilled in martial arts and were responsible for protecting the people of a domain since all daimyo were warring with each other.

9.1.1. During the Edo period, samurai were taught to read and write so that they could serve administrative purposes in the government.

9.1.2. Samurai had high, personal standards and lived by the warrior code of Bushido. Where loyalty to the master was more important than loyalty to family or the community, they must have honour, personal integrity, courage and must die an honourable death.

9.1.3. In exchange for protection, the townspeople attended to all of the samurai's needs.

9.1.4. Were part of the ruling class and had many privileges.

10. How did foreign influence change Japan despite policies of isolation?

10.1. Despite the closed country edicts, some countries such as China and Korea had limited access to Japan for trade.

10.1.1. The Chinese had great influence on Japanese learning and culture since their goods and ideas were one of the few allowed into the country. However, the Chinese also traded with European countries like the Dutch. Most of the European products and ideas were brought to Japan by China. Eventually the Dutch had influence on the Japanese but mainly in the field of medicine. The Japanese did not believe in surgery since it could damage the body which was believed to be inherited by the ancestors and so they became interested in the Dutch's information on medical techniques and practices. By the 1720's, restrictions on European trading had loosened. It became important to learn Dutch so scholars could study Dutch documents and books.Many scholars were travelling to Nagasaki to study European science and art.