Strategies for effective classroom communication (Samsiah)
There are three main elements namely oral communication, non-verbal communication and listening. (Eds: Quek, Wong & Tay, 2008)
Oral communication – teacher should be audible, use and clarify appropriate words and sentence structures, and enunciate words properly.
Non-verbal communication - this involves eye contact with students, appropriate facial expressions, body language (gestures), posture and also the distance between teacher and students
Listening - listening actively and reflectively through use of body orientation and maintaining eye contact to show that listener is interested. Be receptive to students’ messages.
Schema Theory (Yvonne)
Teacher needs to activate student’s schemata in order to teach them new information - based on the research of schema theorists eg. Richard Anderson
Teachers should scaffold so students can build on what they know to reach a new level of knowledge.
- Lev Vygotsky
The Psychology of Play (Yvonne)
Students should be allowed to learn through real-life examples and through play so they can understand abstract principles .
- Lev Vygotsky
The right way to question (Hafez)
Teacher must bear in mind:
Who to ask
How to frame the question
How to probe
How to respond to students’ questions.
How to sequence the question
What not to ask.
ICT is conducive to meaningful learning (Kailuo)
provides real-world contexts
Provides tools that can help students visualize and analyze
Provides students with the chances to reflect and obtain feedback from others
encourages hands-on work from students
- Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 1999 - How People Learn
Motivating students (Kailuo)
Two types of motivation:
extrinsic – there is a reward at the end of the task. Rewards are good for short-term learning.
intrinsic - doing the action for its own sake. This is better for long-term learning.
Causes of demotivation (Kailuo)
Social – absence of positive relationships (Stipek), threats (Jensen), unconducive home environment
Teachers can offer supportive ear and be sensitive to students’ needs (McCombs)
Cognitive – lack sense of mastery (Dweck), feel helpless (Bandura), feel the work Is irrelevant and dull
Teachers can give positive verbal reinforcements (Cameron), make the work relevant and build students’ self-efficacy
Characteristics of an effective teacher (Ting Ee)
A reflective practioner
A continuous learner