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Chapter 5 by Mind Map: Chapter 5

1. Violent Death of Adilson

1.1. Adilson, Filomena's lover died by getting shot in the head 8 times

1.2. Celso, the compadre of Adilson had to clean up the the blood after he pulled himself together upon findnig out about the tragic death of his friend

1.2.1. Celso joked with the author saying it's okay to come back to the favela because he already cleaned out the blood and changed the roof tiles

2. Violence in Rio

2.1. violence in Rio comes in many forms

2.2. the upper and middle classes, with their guarded apartments, are obssed about crimes and violence in the streets; they talk incessantly about it

2.3. themiddle and upper classes have little exposure to the violence that the poorest of the poor in Rio experiences on a daily basis

2.4. the talks of crime in the middle and upper classes creates more avenue to stereotype and be prejudiced against the poor; it also makes them feel that the public places that they can freely enjoy without fear of experiencing or becoming the victim of crimes is getting smaller

2.5. the favelas, where the criminals and thei domestic workers live, are seen through the windows of the apartments of the middle and upper classes that reside in Zona Sul; the shantytowns sees so dangerous to these upper class people

2.6. the violence in the favelas are getting out of hand according to the people that the author knows; it seems as if the honest workers who reside in these favelas can't help but get caught in the middle of these violence

2.7. the levels of daily violence that each person in Rio experience depending on their race, class, gender, and location

2.8. drugs

2.8.1. for the poor, getting tangled with drugs will lead to getting involved in gangs; this is diffent from the "recreational and bohemian meanings they hold among the middle and upper classes

2.8.2. being poor, getting endebted to the gangs because of drugs can lead to dangerous and inevitable involment with them

2.8.3. these drug traffickers lure young unemploed males with money or wages

2.8.4. young men like Roberto- one of Gloria's nephews who joined the military- who does not wish to get involved in gang activites must be very careful and almost totally avoid any kind of socialization or contact with any other men in the favela

2.8.5. the presence of drug trafficking in favelas became an excuse for the government police to routinely mistreat the poor

2.8.6. the rest of the residents of the favelas have to adjust and cope with the presence of these gangs

2.8.7. the local gangs in each favelas are an important source of protection for the residents and source of finances in times of emergenc; it is also a source of work and income for a lot of young men

2.8.8. the control of local gangs to their favelas is a dangerous lure to outside gangs to want to take over and take control of other gangs' favelas

2.9. Local Gang in Felicidade Eterna

2.9.1. in the 1990's the gand in Felicidade Eterna is consist of the leader Dilmar and 4 other young men

2.9.2. the authro met Dilamr in his tiny shack, which suprised her since the gang leaders that she knew in Rochinda and Vidigal have nice houses which reflects the financial capability that they experience

2.9.3. these local gangs act as mediators in lovers' or family feuds , mediate relations between local police and th people of the town; they also protect the favela from invation from other gangs from other favelas, or use Felicidade Eterna as a drug operation spot for example

2.9.4. "homegrown" gang members are less feared than outside invader gangs because they have a sense of reponsibility of caring for their favela

3. Police-Bandit Reltions

3.1. Ivo

3.1.1. considered as one of the founders of Felicidade Eterna; before the time of Delmar

3.1.2. was shot on the face while brushing his teeth by Lulu for being late on protection payment for the second time

3.2. Lulu

3.2.1. known as a corrup police and counterpart of Ivo

3.2.2. he would often extort money from Ivo for protection for his illegal activites

3.2.3. evn after hid dismissal from the force, he still considered Felicidade Eterna as his own territory

3.2.4. when Ivo was late one time he shot a dog and drank its blood in plain view; the second time Ivo was late he shot him in the face

3.2.5. murdered in a local samba club; some say that he was hated by many so much that people walked and peed all over his lifeless bleeding body on the floor of the club

3.2.6. came from a long line of police officers

3.3. Katy Mohoney

3.3.1. sister of Lulu and also a police officer

3.3.2. "Katy Mohoney" is a nickname that the residents of Felicidade Eterna gave her

3.3.3. she would come to Felicidade and sniff young men for marijuana scents and beat them up with whatever she's holding which for the most part is her firearm

3.3.4. she was known to be a tough woman but ulike her brother, never killed anyone

3.4. Era of Braga

3.4.1. after the time of Lulu; known as tough but respected police officer

3.4.2. he stepped in after Ivo's death when outsider gangs invaded Felicidade Eterna and started selling drugs on the street

3.4.3. he was known as the person who cleaned up the favela

3.4.4. he ended up marrying Ivo's widow

3.5. Dilamr

3.5.1. took over after Ivo died and Braga chased away the invader gangs

3.5.2. was known as a smooth talker and the one who introduced Braga to Ivo's widow

3.5.3. he kept his business so small that so he can fly under the radar of the police and would concetrate more on cracking down much bigger gangs

3.5.4. he was able to create a certain kind of relationship with the police force so that the residents of Felicidade will be safe from the police brutally that was rampant

3.5.5. him and his boys were considered decent; they would warn parents to keep their children off the streets if there's an expected shoot-out

3.5.6. Dilmar was eventually murdered by his 4 members for fear of betrayal

3.6. Beno

3.6.1. the main planner of Dilmar's assassination landed in jail

3.6.2. met an inmate from Vila Maria, an adjacent favela; he sent word to his boys in Felicidade and told them to force alliances with the gang of Vila Maria the "Amigos dos Amigos" or ADA however an invading gang called the "Colegio das Arvores" alreayd claimed Felicidade

3.6.3. an all out small gang war errupted in Felicidade Eterna and Beno completely lost control of the local gang

3.6.4. he was the only one who steeped up to become the new Dono after Dilmar's death

3.6.5. after getting out of prison and assuming leadership, he solidified the alliance with the ADA

3.6.6. he as forced to leave his position after stealing and salling a car without splitting the profits with the ADA gang

3.7. Jairo

3.7.1. Beno's 13 year old brother

3.7.2. he was killed by men who calimed to be the police when he would not tell them who the new Dono was

3.7.3. the residents are not clear who actually killed Jairo; they would say "police-bandits" killed Jairo

3.7.4. the term "police-bandits" is used for corrupt police who would extort local gangs for protection for their business in the favelas; these police officers get more money in being corrupt

4. Revenge

4.1. stand in for the legal system

4.2. an endless vicious cycle in "the streets"

4.3. this cycle occurs because the goverment could not provide a policing and legal systems that works

4.4. an endless cycle that involves the police, the bandits, and the "police-bandits"; off-duty police killings

5. Solution of Private Matters in Felicidade Eterna

5.1. Due to the inability of the goverment to provide effective policing systems, some matters in the favelas are treated as matters that should be dealt with internally

5.1.1. Sexual Abuse a man who was sexually abusing his 2 stepdaughters were badly beaten up by the local gang and was threatened to be kiled if he returns to the favella

5.1.2. Adultery Adriana, one of Gloria's neighbor, cheated with his commonlaw husband Ciro with another man who's also in a commonlaw marriage Ciro upon finding out abou the affair asked the local gang to beat up the other man which they willingly obliged the other man was thrown away and theatened of death if he returned to Felicidade; Adrian left with him Ciro, with an accomplice, wanted more revenged and, nbeat up and rape the other man's wife that her left upon hearing Ciro's plan, the neighbors called on to the local gang for help; they steped in and evetually shot Ciro's accomplice for refusing to stop raping the woman the accomplice lost his leg and avenged himself by asking 2 other guys to assasinate his shooter which was succesfully executed the beaten up woman never returned to the favela

5.1.3. Gun Control after Beno lost control of Felicidade, the ADA gang took over and prohibited anyone outside their gang to own guns alocal resident named Franklin, also Beno's brother-in-law, refused to give his gun up one day when Franklin was out, the gang forced entry to his house; his wife was home alone and was severely beaten for refusal to tell where the gun was hidden Upon returning to the favela and hearing about the situation, Franklin called the police for help which resulted to a shoot-out Franklin eventually asked for help from rival gang which resulted in an all out war for the territory

5.1.4. Pety Theft Afonso, Isadora's son was involved in a theft at his workplace , a bakery Dinho, a policeman, beat Alfonso very badly but didn't arrest him Isadora forced Afonso to return the taken items since Dinho didn't arrest Afonso and returned everything back to the bakery, Dinho was seen as some sort of a hero for "finding" the items

5.1.5. Abusive and Adulterous Husband Marilia, Gloria's neighbor was being abused and cheated on by her husband her brother Celso was a hard criminal and in prison Marilia started threatenig her husband if she doens't treat her well, she would tell Celso Celso wrote the husband many letters threatening to kill him if he doesn't start treating Marilia and their children very well The husband started treating Marilia well because of fear of Celso After Celso release from prison her visited his sister; he told his cowering and scared brother-in-law that he could not go through his threat since he's a changed man and had joined the church but still demamde his sister be treated well

5.1.6. Rape of a Child Marilia's brother-in-law was mistaken as the rapist of a 13 year old girl a group of masked people- possibly could be off-duty police, priavtely hired men, or local gang members- picked him up and was ready to kill him but was doused with gasoline and set on fire instead when a car drove up with the real perpetrator inside residents believe that criminal must be punished no matter what and it doesn't matter who carries out the punishment

6. Guillermo O'Donnell's Zones

6.1. "blue" zone have a high degree of state presence, effective bureaucracy, and a properly functioning legal system is present

6.2. "green" zone are those with high territorial penetration and lower state presence in a functional form

6.3. "brown" zone very low or negligible state presence

6.3.1. these are areas where in the state is unable to enforce legality and no one in these areas expect proper treatment from the police or even from the courts

7. Policing the Lower Class

7.1. people living in different environments/neigborhoods/favelas are exposed ti different risk and violence

7.2. in 1995, Felicidade Eterna 's estimated homidice rate is 229.9 per 100,000 while in the neighboring favel, in Bangu, the estimated homicide rate is 120.8 per 100,000

7.3. in middle and upper class neighborhood have a much lower homicide rate: Gavea inZona Sul at 4.3 per 100,000 and Copacabana 19.5 per 100,000

7.4. the poor have great mistrusts of the police because of their experiences with the corruption dealings between law enforcement and residents of these favelas

8. Different Classes, Diffirent Culture

8.1. those that grew up in middle class knows that in order to stay in the middle class they must take education seriously and pass their vestibular examination

8.2. on the other end of the spectrum, those that grew up in favels like Felicidade Eterna, it is hard to convince chidlren to take education seriously because of their experiences and them witnessing how their elders struggle and work hard and still are stuck in the favelas

9. Religion and the Women in Favelas

9.1. Filomena, upon the death of her husband Adilson joined the church of The Assembly of God, one of the various churches in Felicidade Eterna, together with Soneca

9.2. 69 percent of church attendees and members are women

9.3. women, in opposition to the ever rising gang violence in the favela, join/convert and turn to religion