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Facilitation (based on Process Iceberg®) study guide mind map by Mind Map: Facilitation (based on Process Iceberg®) study guide mind map

1. The Process Iceberg® Facilitation Programme is designed to give individuals the skills and expertise to become effective Facilitators, capable of operating in a wide variety of situations. It is also designed to provide the structure and framework to introduce a facilitated approach to improvement, innovation and change in organisations.

2. Process Iceberg® Model (1)

2.1. model is:

2.1.1. hierarchical each level is before the next one

2.1.2. sequential each level follows the previous level

2.1.3. inter-dependant each level relies on level above

2.2. levels

2.2.1. Objectives and Tasks

2.2.2. Process (Format and Tools)

2.2.3. Communications and Inter-Personal Interactions

2.2.4. Individual Preference and Roles

2.2.5. Buy-in Neutral Emotions

2.3. usages (3)

2.3.1. used for designing / planning a meeting / event / workshop The Process Iceberg® Meeting Model illustrates that, if a facilitator can find and use the appropriate objectives and tasks, along with the process (format and tools), then 80 per cent of the group’s problems disappear. According to this model, there are no difficult people, only ill-defined tasks and processes.

2.3.2. used to diagnose problems in a meeting / event / workshop The Process Iceberg® can also be used as a diagnostic model for analysing problems in meetings and identifying what to do. If you turned the Process Iceberg® up side down, emotional insecurity (i.e. raw emotions) is possibly a consequence of unbalanced team roles.

2.3.3. used at an organisational level to help plan for change implement a strategic intent and conducting a diagnosis of the organisation’s problems

3. The Task (red) (1)

3.1. TASK = What we do

3.1.1. Therefore there are “Task issues”

3.1.2. a.k.a. Red Thinking

3.2. Task is WHAT the group is doing (what we are doing)

3.2.1. Issue facing the group, topic on meeting, goal to be achieved during meeting, problem to discuss ...

3.3. The Degree of Task uncertainty

3.3.1. Certainty The Question / Problem / Issue is clear and the answer is easily obtained from the people in the group

3.3.2. Complexity The Question / Problem / Issue is relatively clear but the solution has to be developed

3.3.3. Uncertainty Even the nature of the Question / Problem / Issue is unclear and has to be defined and clarified. Only then can a solution be explored.

3.3.4. The real problem with handling: Certainty, Complexity and Uncertainty is the time element. Groups do not recognise the time implications of the different scenarios. The time required to tackle complexity and uncertainty is far greater than a group would imagine. Certainty Complexity Uncertainty

3.4. For Task responsible is:

3.4.1. Task Leader

4. The Process (green) (1)

4.1. PROCESS = How we do it

4.1.1. Therefore there are "Process / Format methods”

4.1.2. a.k.a. Green Thinking

4.2. Process – the means of production – takes raw materials (ideas) and turns them into a finished product (decisions) with the minimum of waste (effort) through the maximization of the resources (people’s time) available.

4.3. Process is the MEANS / WAYS of addressing the task, of finding ways to make headway

4.4. A long list of tasks does not defines HOW to tackle / resolve / finish them

4.4.1. So task itself does not provide and answer and process to follow

4.5. Facilitation adds this "Process based approach" to meetings

4.6. Process is the combination of:

4.6.1. Tools

4.6.2. Techniques

4.6.3. Formats

4.7. For Process responsible is

4.7.1. Facilitator

4.8. Process awareness

4.8.1. A group goes through three stages: Dysfunctional Transitional Process Aware

4.9. The Facilitator is there to design, adapt, change and manage the Process to the benefit of the task, taking into account the parameters expounded in previous chapters:

4.9.1. the nature of the task: certain, complex or uncertain

4.9.2. the level of Process maturity of the group: dysfunctional, transitional or Process Aware

4.9.3. the time available to complete the objective(s)

4.9.4. the number of sub groups the participants are going to work in

4.9.5. the different individual (personality) types

4.10. Format

4.10.1. Format is the way you use the resources in the room, application of people to Process

4.10.2. There are 4 formats: Selecting the appropriate format depends on the time available and the group’s level of process awareness. Each of these formats produces a different outcome and either supports the process or works against it. All Each person works on their own (quietly) doing the activity, using the technique Used when: Group A group works together doing the activity, using the technique Used when: All to One Everyone does the activity out loud), directed to one person or one place (e.g. flip chart) Used when: One to All One person does the activity, on behalf of everyone Used when:

4.10.3. When each format should be used?

4.10.4. Each format has advantages and disadvantages Facilitator will select the "right" one based on analysis of situation

5. Feedback Model

5.1. Feedback Model provides the means to:

5.1.1. Ensures understanding between people

5.1.2. Develops ideas

5.1.3. Climb out of uncertainty

5.1.4. Works as a translator between specialists / experts

5.2. 4 circles / level:

5.2.1. 1 - Misunderstanding or misinterpreting what was said You will have completely misunderstood what the speaker was saying.

5.2.2. 2 - Missing out some important points or details You have missed some points or not quite grasped all of what was being said.

5.2.3. 3 - Feeding back accurately and fully what was said You may reflect accurately what the person was saying and have grasped the points being made.

5.2.4. 4 - Getting behind the words to the “hidden” message You might be able to feedback what the person did not say. It means that you have ‘seen’ something that follows on from what the speaker has said, or could rightfully be inferred (in a positive) sense.

5.2.5. People often express half-baked opinions, ideas and thoughts not because they are incompetent but, rather, because the task is uncertain.

5.2.6. Ensuring effective feedback can help the individual and the group uncover the real issues and fashion new ideas.

5.3. Words to Use when Feeding Back (to check understanding)

5.3.1. “So what you’re saying is …”

5.3.2. “If I understand …”

5.3.3. “My understanding is that …”

5.3.4. “Can I just check what you’re saying …”

5.3.5. ”I think that you’re saying that …”

5.4. Words to Use when using Reverse Feeding Back (to confirm understanding)

5.4.1. “So what am I saying …”

5.4.2. “What do you understand me to be saying …”

5.4.3. “Your understanding is what ? ”

5.4.4. “Can you just check back what I am saying …”

5.4.5. “You think that I am saying …”

5.5. Using Analogy with Feedback

5.6. Who does the Feedback in groups based on group maturity:

5.6.1. In a Dysfunctional Group The Facilitator (no one else will)

5.6.2. In a Transitional Group Someone - ask for a ‘Someone’ and they will Feedback

5.6.3. In a Process Aware Group Anyone / Everyone will Feedback

6. Myers Briggs Type Indicator® (MBTI)

6.1. MBTI is a personality typing tool

6.2. E

6.2.1. Extravert Active Outward People orientated Many Expressive Breadth Speak before they think

6.3. I

6.3.1. Introvert Reflective Inward Privacy Few Fewer gestures Depth Think before they speak

6.4. S

6.4.1. Sensing

6.5. N

6.5.1. iNtuiting

6.6. T

6.6.1. Thinking

6.7. F

6.7.1. Feeling

6.8. J

6.8.1. Judging (structured)

6.9. P

6.9.1. Perceiving (unstructured)

6.10. 12 quick tips to better care for ...

6.10.1. 12 quick tips to better care for an introvert

6.10.2. 12 quick tips to better care for an extrovert

7. This freeware mind map was carefully hand crafted with passion and love for learning and constant improvement as well for promotion the Facilitation based on Process Iceberg® and as a learning tool for candidates wanting to gain Facilitation qualification. (please share, like and give feedback - your feedback and comments are my main motivation for further elaboration. THX!)

7.1. Questions / issues / errors? What do you think about my work? Your comments are highly appreciated. Feel free to visit my website:






7.1.6. miroslaw_dabrowski

8. Roles (3)

8.1. Task Leader

8.1.1. Focusing on (red) Task That is, the person responsible for the event’s success

8.1.2. In any use of facilitation, there are task issues (the task leader’s responsibility) and process methods (the facilitator’s responsibility)

8.1.3. Task leaders have an implied contract with the group they lead

8.1.4. Leaders fall into one of four categories (Task Leader’s Contract with the Group)

8.2. Facilitator

8.2.1. “A person who is acceptable to all group members, substantively neutral, and has no decision-making authority who helps a group improve the way it identifies and solves problems and makes decisions.” (Roger M. Schwarz)

8.2.2. “One who contributes structure and process to interactions so groups are able to function effectively and make high-quality decisions. A helper and enabler whose goal is to support others as they achieve exceptional performance.” (Ingrid Bens)

8.2.3. A facilitator provides a method and a means to deliver answers to complex issues in an operational context without necessarily being a subject matter expert.

8.2.4. S/he needs to balance time, the degree of uncertainty of the issues and the process maturity of the organization / group - and help the task leader to find the best possible process.

8.2.5. Facilitators must use the right model/tool in the right place to get the most helpful answer, allowing groups to make decisions and reach a lasting, robust agreement which has commitment and buy-in.

8.2.6. They must understand the continuum of decisionmaking and change which identifies the best tool or technique to use depending on the seriousness / significance of the decision / situation, the time factor and the need for the workforce - emotionally and mentally – to commit to the decision.

8.2.7. Facilitators need to build a comprehensive catalogue of: Approaches Models Tools Techniques

8.2.8. Difference between Functions

8.2.9. Facilitator is focusing on (green) Process

8.2.10. The Facilitation Triangle Maturity of the Group/Individual Size & Complexity of the Task/Objectives Time Available

8.2.11. Facilitator, listens to the (Task) words and identify the ones that will give the clues to deciding the: Appropriate Format see Format ... The ‘right’ Tool and Techniques

8.2.12. Characteristics of an Effective Facilitator Reaction to Change Approach to Process Breadth of Knowledge Reaction to Stress Speed of Reaction

8.2.13. Facilitator’s role alters depending on: The nature of the Task The maturity of the group The time pressures which might require the Facilitator to take more of a Process lead to allow the group to focus on the task

8.2.14. Responsibilities Design an effective Process to achieve the Objective Use an appropriate Format that will enable people to feel secure Ensure that the individuals in the group are using their interpersonal skills effectively Ensure that the team roles are balanced and any weaknesses dealt with by the use of suitable tools and techniques

8.3. Group

8.3.1. The Level of Process Awareness in the Group Stage 1 - Dysfunctional There is strong leadership and the agenda is set. The Group can only manage if there is a rigid procedure which everyone follows. Sample characteristics How they get to the next Level Stage 2 - Transitional The Group begins to use different Formats & Tools, procedures become more flexible, inter-actions improve & the group begins to take an active interest in Process Characteristics How they get to the next Level Stage 3 - Process Aware The Group will recognise Uncertainty and adapt the process appropriately. Individuals will take responsibility for the process. Characteristics

8.3.2. The group moves from being dysfunctional to transitional initially by the leader relinquishing control to the process

8.3.3. The facilitator engenders in the group a willingness to try different techniques.

8.3.4. The group then begins to recognize the part that process plays in achieving an effective outcome – and how much time is needed.

8.3.5. The group moves from being transitional to process aware as it uses appropriate techniques to tackle the task and resolves to be willing to work in complexity – not avoid it.

9. Models, Tools, Techniques

9.1. Within a Model, there will be more than one Tools and within a Tool, there will be more than one Techniques,

9.2. Models (10)

9.2.1. Agenda Process A process model

9.2.2. Feedback Model

9.2.3. Finding Model

9.2.4. Flow Charting

9.2.5. Is and Is Not A data collection and analysis model

9.2.6. Open Space Technology

9.2.7. Process Iceberg® Model

9.2.8. Process Iceberg® Review Model A process model

9.2.9. Repertory Grid A data collection model

9.2.10. Solve™ Problem Solving and Solution Finding Model

9.3. Tools (21)

9.3.1. Action Planning

9.3.2. Allegory - A Day at the Zoo A data collection tool

9.3.3. As Is ... To Be

9.3.4. Data Collection

9.3.5. Fishbone / Ishikawa Diagram

9.3.6. Five Questions A problem analysis and Solution finding tool

9.3.7. Four Box A data analysis and decision making tool

9.3.8. Matrix Charting A data analysis tool

9.3.9. Perceiving Ourselves and Others

9.3.10. Relative Importance Grid (RIG)

9.3.11. Restatement / Provocation A data collection tool

9.3.12. Risk Analysis

9.3.13. Risk Evaluation

9.3.14. SWOT

9.3.15. Stakeholder Mapping

9.3.16. Storytelling A data collection tool

9.3.17. Summarise, Propose, Output (SPO) Summarise ( the background/context) Propose (Format, technique(s)) Outcome/Output (what will result) Benefits It connects ‘red’ and ‘green’ and makes the symbiotic link. It demonstrates the significance of ‘green’ in tackling the task. It allows the group to take responsibility by enabling people to challenge the S, the P or the O and thus become more aware of Process thinking. It introduces models, tools and techniques in context and demonstrates what they are used for. It gives the facilitator (or anyone) the ability to introduce Process.

9.3.18. Symptom, Cause, Action (SCA) - Organisational Issues A data collection tool

9.3.19. Symptom, Cause, Action (SCA) - Process Intervention A process tool

9.3.20. Trust and Agreement

9.3.21. What will I see happening

9.4. Techniqes (19)

9.4.1. Action Planning

9.4.2. Analogy

9.4.3. Braindumping

9.4.4. Brainstorming

9.4.5. Clustering

9.4.6. Debate and Group Formations All Group All to One One to All

9.4.7. Essential and Desirable

9.4.8. Expert Witness

9.4.9. Five Box Risk Analysis

9.4.10. Force Field Analysis

9.4.11. Linking

9.4.12. Moving out from the Centre

9.4.13. Out of the Box

9.4.14. Presentation and Questions

9.4.15. Risk Evaluation

9.4.16. Snap

9.4.17. Twirly

9.4.18. Voting with Dots

9.4.19. Yes and ...

10. Additional, reated resources

10.1. International Association of Facilitators


10.2. Knowledge Sharing Methods and Tools - A Facilitator's Guide


10.3. Facilitation Tools for Meetings and Workshops


10.4. Facilitator Tool Kit


10.5. Facilitating Participatory Workshops

10.6. Effective Group Facilitation


11. Facilitation publications

11.1. Facilitation - An Art, Science, Skill or all three?: Build your expertise in Facilitation

11.1.1. ISBN-13: 978-0955643507

11.1.2. Pages: 235


11.2. Facilitation - A Manual of Models, Tools and Techniques for Effective Group Working

11.2.1. ISBN-13: 978-0955643514

11.2.2. Pages: 269


12. Process Iceberg® Review Model (1)

12.1. The Process Iceberg® Review Model provides a mechanism to help groups review their performance in terms of the Task and Process and to establish a ‘charter1 of actions and behaviours that will enable them, in the future to become even more effective.

12.2. model is:

12.2.1. hierarchical each level is before the next one

12.2.2. sequential each level follows the previous level

12.2.3. inter-dependant each level relies on level above

12.3. levels

12.3.1. Objectives and Tasks

12.3.2. Process (Format and Tools)

12.3.3. Communications and Inter-Personal Interactions

12.3.4. Team roles

12.3.5. Emotions

12.4. usages (1)

12.4.1. used for making retrospective and lessons learned at the end of every event Ask the Group “What has Helped in terms of the Objectives - in achieving the task today?" When they have identified an aspect of Process ask them “So what will you do next time?” When they give the answer write the statement on the Model in the appropriate place (on the left hand side). Then ask the Group “What else Helped?” and when they have identified a Process factor, ask them “So what will you do next time?”

13. Facilitation exams

13.1. Facilitation sample exams, available online

13.1.1. Facilitation Foundation

14. Facilitation Process Iceberg® consists of: 1 Iceberg Model, 1 Iceberg Review Model, 1 Process, 1 Task, 3 Roles, 10 Models, 21 Tools, 19 Techniques.

14.1. Download: Facilitation free assets

15. Facilitation

15.1. Facilitation is a basic life skill that can be used profitably to:

15.1.1. identify issues

15.1.2. resolve problems

15.1.3. encourage productive interaction

15.1.4. develop accurate objectives

15.1.5. define the scope of change projects

15.1.6. encourage and empower contributions in a safe, non-threatening environment

15.1.7. engage stakeholders.

15.2. Facilitating actually means:

15.2.1. Understanding the goals of the meeting and the organization

15.2.2. Keeping the group on the agenda and moving forward

15.2.3. Involving everyone in the meeting, including drawing out the quiet participants and controlling the domineering ones

15.2.4. Making sure that decisions are made democratically

15.3. Facilitation can support organizations, enabling people to work in a collaborative, participative way to tackle key issues and make fundamental decisions.

15.4. Effective facilitation can make the difference between a poor and a brilliant decision.

15.5. It can make the difference between a solution that has hidden problems and one that is robust.

15.6. Facilitation has three basic principles:

15.6.1. A facilitator is a guide to help people move through a process together, not the seat of wisdom and knowledge That means a facilitator isn't there to give opinions, but to draw out opinions and ideas of the group members

15.6.2. Facilitation focuses on how people participate in the process of learning or planning, not just on what gets achieved

15.6.3. A facilitator is neutral and never takes sides