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Facilitation (based on Process Iceberg®) study guide mind map by Mind Map: Facilitation (based on Process
Iceberg®) study guide mind
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Facilitation (based on Process Iceberg®) study guide mind map

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The Process Iceberg® Facilitation Programme is designed to give individuals the skills and expertise to become effective Facilitators, capable of operating in a wide variety of situations. It is also designed to provide the structure and framework to introduce a facilitated approach to improvement, innovation and change in organisations.

Process Iceberg® Model (1)

model is:

hierarchical, each level is before the next one

sequential, each level follows the previous level

inter-dependant, each level relies on level above


Objectives and Tasks

Process (Format and Tools)

Communications and Inter-Personal Interactions

Individual Preference and Roles

Buy-in Neutral Emotions

usages (3)

used for designing / planning a meeting / event / workshop, The Process Iceberg® Meeting Model illustrates that, if a facilitator can find and use the appropriate objectives and tasks, along with the process (format and tools), then 80 per cent of the group’s problems disappear. According to this model, there are no difficult people, only ill-defined tasks and processes.

used to diagnose problems in a meeting / event / workshop, The Process Iceberg® can also be used as a diagnostic model for analysing problems in meetings and identifying what to do., If you turned the Process Iceberg® up side down, emotional insecurity (i.e. raw emotions) is possibly a consequence of unbalanced team roles.

used at an organisational level to help plan for change implement a strategic intent and conducting a diagnosis of the organisation’s problems

The Task (red) (1)

TASK = What we do

Therefore there are “Task issues”

a.k.a. Red Thinking

Task is WHAT the group is doing (what we are doing)

Issue facing the group, topic on meeting, goal to be achieved during meeting, problem to discuss ...

The Degree of Task uncertainty

Certainty, The Question / Problem / Issue is clear and the answer is easily obtained from the people in the group

Complexity, The Question / Problem / Issue is relatively clear but the solution has to be developed

Uncertainty, Even the nature of the Question / Problem / Issue is unclear and has to be defined and clarified. Only then can a solution be explored.

The real problem with handling: Certainty, Complexity and Uncertainty is the time element., Groups do not recognise the time implications of the different scenarios., The time required to tackle complexity and uncertainty is far greater than a group would imagine., Certainty, T = T, Complexity, T = T x 2.5, Uncertainty, T = T x 4.5

For Task responsible is:

Task Leader

The Process (green) (1)

PROCESS = How we do it

Therefore there are "Process / Format methods”

a.k.a. Green Thinking

Process – the means of production – takes raw materials (ideas) and turns them into a finished product (decisions) with the minimum of waste (effort) through the maximization of the resources (people’s time) available.

Process is the MEANS / WAYS of addressing the task, of finding ways to make headway

A long list of tasks does not defines HOW to tackle / resolve / finish them

So task itself does not provide and answer and process to follow

Facilitation adds this "Process based approach" to meetings

Process is the combination of:




For Process responsible is


Process awareness

A group goes through three stages:, Dysfunctional, Transitional, Process Aware

The Facilitator is there to design, adapt, change and manage the Process to the benefit of the task, taking into account the parameters expounded in previous chapters:

the nature of the task: certain, complex or uncertain

the level of Process maturity of the group: dysfunctional, transitional or Process Aware

the time available to complete the objective(s)

the number of sub groups the participants are going to work in

the different individual (personality) types


Format is the way you use the resources in the room, application of people to Process

There are 4 formats:, Selecting the appropriate format depends on the time available and the group’s level of process awareness., Each of these formats produces a different outcome and either supports the process or works against it., All, Each person works on their own (quietly) doing the activity, using the technique, Used when:, there are dominant people in the group and you want people to work independently, free of others influence., you want everyone own thoughts/ideas/input., Group, A group works together doing the activity, using the technique, Used when:, there are different constituencies’ in the room and you want to reflect their different perspectives., All to One, Everyone does the activity out loud), directed to one person or one place (e.g. flip chart), Used when:, you want cross fertilisation of ideas., there is no danger of domination by individuals., One to All, One person does the activity, on behalf of everyone, Used when:, there is an expert in the room who can steer the group by giving their expert input (first).

When each format should be used?

Each format has advantages and disadvantages, Facilitator will select the "right" one based on analysis of situation

Feedback Model

Feedback Model provides the means to:

Ensures understanding between people

Develops ideas

Climb out of uncertainty

Works as a translator between specialists / experts

4 circles / level:

1 - Misunderstanding or misinterpreting what was said, You will have completely misunderstood what the speaker was saying.

2 - Missing out some important points or details, You have missed some points or not quite grasped all of what was being said.

3 - Feeding back accurately and fully what was said, You may reflect accurately what the person was saying and have grasped the points being made.

4 - Getting behind the words to the “hidden” message, You might be able to feedback what the person did not say., It means that you have ‘seen’ something that follows on from what the speaker has said, or could rightfully be inferred (in a positive) sense.

People often express half-baked opinions, ideas and thoughts not because they are incompetent but, rather, because the task is uncertain.

Ensuring effective feedback can help the individual and the group uncover the real issues and fashion new ideas.

Words to Use when Feeding Back (to check understanding)

“So what you’re saying is …”

“If I understand …”

“My understanding is that …”

“Can I just check what you’re saying …”

”I think that you’re saying that …”

Words to Use when using Reverse Feeding Back (to confirm understanding)

“So what am I saying …”

“What do you understand me to be saying …”

“Your understanding is what ? ”

“Can you just check back what I am saying …”

“You think that I am saying …”

Using Analogy with Feedback

Who does the Feedback in groups based on group maturity:

In a Dysfunctional Group, The Facilitator (no one else will)

In a Transitional Group, Someone - ask for a ‘Someone’ and they will Feedback

In a Process Aware Group, Anyone / Everyone will Feedback

Myers Briggs Type Indicator® (MBTI)

MBTI is a personality typing tool


Extravert, Active, Outward, People orientated, Many, Expressive, Breadth, Speak before they think


Introvert, Reflective, Inward, Privacy, Few, Fewer gestures, Depth, Think before they speak










Judging (structured)


Perceiving (unstructured)

12 quick tips to better care for ...

12 quick tips to better care for an introvert

12 quick tips to better care for an extrovert

This freeware mind map was carefully hand crafted with passion and love for learning and constant improvement as well for promotion the Facilitation based on Process Iceberg® and as a learning tool for candidates wanting to gain Facilitation qualification. (please share, like and give feedback - your feedback and comments are my main motivation for further elaboration. THX!)

Questions / issues / errors? What do you think about my work? Your comments are highly appreciated. Please don't hesitate to contact me for :-) Mirosław Dąbrowski, Poland/Warsaw.


Roles (3)

Task Leader

Focusing on (red) Task, That is, the person responsible for the event’s success

In any use of facilitation, there are task issues (the task leader’s responsibility) and process methods (the facilitator’s responsibility)

Task leaders have an implied contract with the group they lead

Leaders fall into one of four categories (Task Leader’s Contract with the Group)


“A person who is acceptable to all group members, substantively neutral, and has no decision-making authority who helps a group improve the way it identifies and solves problems and makes decisions.” (Roger M. Schwarz)

“One who contributes structure and process to interactions so groups are able to function effectively and make high-quality decisions. A helper and enabler whose goal is to support others as they achieve exceptional performance.” (Ingrid Bens)

A facilitator provides a method and a means to deliver answers to complex issues in an operational context without necessarily being a subject matter expert.

S/he needs to balance time, the degree of uncertainty of the issues and the process maturity of the organization / group - and help the task leader to find the best possible process.

Facilitators must use the right model/tool in the right place to get the most helpful answer, allowing groups to make decisions and reach a lasting, robust agreement which has commitment and buy-in.

They must understand the continuum of decisionmaking and change which identifies the best tool or technique to use depending on the seriousness / significance of the decision / situation, the time factor and the need for the workforce - emotionally and mentally – to commit to the decision.

Facilitators need to build a comprehensive catalogue of:, Approaches, Models, Tools, Techniques

Difference between Functions

Facilitator is focusing on (green) Process

The Facilitation Triangle, Maturity of the Group/Individual, Size & Complexity of the Task/Objectives, Time Available

Facilitator, listens to the (Task) words and identify the ones that will give the clues to deciding the:, Appropriate Format, see Format ..., The ‘right’ Tool and Techniques

Characteristics of an Effective Facilitator, Reaction to Change, Approach to Process, Breadth of Knowledge, Reaction to Stress, Speed of Reaction

Facilitator’s role alters depending on:, The nature of the Task, The maturity of the group, The time pressures which might require the Facilitator to take more of a Process lead to allow the group to focus on the task

Responsibilities, Design an effective Process to achieve the Objective, Use an appropriate Format that will enable people to feel secure, Ensure that the individuals in the group are using their interpersonal skills effectively, Ensure that the team roles are balanced and any weaknesses dealt with by the use of suitable tools and techniques


The Level of Process Awareness in the Group, Stage 1 - Dysfunctional, There is strong leadership and the agenda is set. The Group can only manage if there is a rigid procedure which everyone follows., Sample characteristics, Leader exercises complete control., Group work in a hierarchical way., Few, if any, visual aids used., Absence of flip chart, white board etc., How they get to the next Level, Leader relinquishes control., Willingness to try different techniques., Begin to recognise ‘time’ and how much is needed., Stage 2 - Transitional, The Group begins to use different Formats & Tools, procedures become more flexible, inter-actions improve & the group begins to take an active interest in Process, Characteristics, Beginning to use tools and techniques., Willingness to try new ways of working., Take ‘physical’ control of space., Willingness to interact, if prompted., How they get to the next Level, Take much more notice of process., Use appropriate techniques to tackle the task., Willing to work in complexity and not avoid it., Stage 3 - Process Aware, The Group will recognise Uncertainty and adapt the process appropriately. Individuals will take responsibility for the process., Characteristics, Personal responsibility for interactions., Variety of different formats., Use of a wide range of tools and techniques., Unafraid of Uncertainty.

The group moves from being dysfunctional to transitional initially by the leader relinquishing control to the process

The facilitator engenders in the group a willingness to try different techniques.

The group then begins to recognize the part that process plays in achieving an effective outcome – and how much time is needed.

The group moves from being transitional to process aware as it uses appropriate techniques to tackle the task and resolves to be willing to work in complexity – not avoid it.

Models, Tools, Techniques

Within a Model, there will be more than one Tools and within a Tool, there will be more than one Techniques,

Models (10)

Agenda Process, A process model

Feedback Model

Finding Model

Flow Charting

Is and Is Not, A data collection and analysis model

Open Space Technology

Process Iceberg® Model

Process Iceberg® Review Model, A process model

Repertory Grid, A data collection model

Solve™, Problem Solving and Solution Finding Model

Tools (21)

Action Planning

Allegory - A Day at the Zoo, A data collection tool

As Is ... To Be

Data Collection

Fishbone / Ishikawa Diagram

Five Questions, A problem analysis and Solution finding tool

Four Box, A data analysis and decision making tool

Matrix Charting, A data analysis tool

Perceiving Ourselves and Others

Relative Importance Grid (RIG)

Restatement / Provocation, A data collection tool

Risk Analysis

Risk Evaluation


Stakeholder Mapping

Storytelling, A data collection tool

Summarise, Propose, Output (SPO), Summarise ( the background/context), Propose (Format, technique(s)), Outcome/Output (what will result), Benefits, It connects ‘red’ and ‘green’ and makes the symbiotic link., It demonstrates the significance of ‘green’ in tackling the task., It allows the group to take responsibility by enabling people to challenge the S, the P or the O and thus become more aware of Process thinking., It introduces models, tools and techniques in context and demonstrates what they are used for., It gives the facilitator (or anyone) the ability to introduce Process.

Symptom, Cause, Action (SCA) - Organisational Issues, A data collection tool

Symptom, Cause, Action (SCA) - Process Intervention, A process tool

Trust and Agreement

What will I see happening

Techniqes (19)

Action Planning





Debate and Group Formations, All, Group, All to One, One to All

Essential and Desirable

Expert Witness

Five Box Risk Analysis

Force Field Analysis


Moving out from the Centre

Out of the Box

Presentation and Questions

Risk Evaluation



Voting with Dots

Yes and ...

Additional, reated resources

International Association of Facilitators

Knowledge Sharing Methods and Tools - A Facilitator's Guide

Facilitation Tools for Meetings and Workshops

Facilitator Tool Kit

Facilitating Participatory Workshops

Effective Group Facilitation

Facilitation publications

Facilitation - An Art, Science, Skill or all three?: Build your expertise in Facilitation

ISBN-13: 978-0955643507

Pages: 235

Facilitation - A Manual of Models, Tools and Techniques for Effective Group Working

ISBN-13: 978-0955643514

Pages: 269

Process Iceberg® Review Model (1)

The Process Iceberg® Review Model provides a mechanism to help groups review their performance in terms of the Task and Process and to establish a ‘charter1 of actions and behaviours that will enable them, in the future to become even more effective.

model is:

hierarchical, each level is before the next one

sequential, each level follows the previous level

inter-dependant, each level relies on level above


Objectives and Tasks

Process (Format and Tools)

Communications and Inter-Personal Interactions

Team roles


usages (1)

used for making retrospective and lessons learned at the end of every event, Ask the Group, “What has Helped in terms of the Objectives - in achieving the task today?", When they have identified an aspect of Process ask them “So what will you do next time?”, When they give the answer write the statement on the Model in the appropriate place (on the left hand side)., Then ask the Group “What else Helped?” and when they have identified a Process factor, ask them “So what will you do next time?”, Write this statement on the Model on the left hand side.

Facilitation exams

Facilitation sample exams, available online

Facilitation Foundation,

Facilitation Process Iceberg® consists of: 1 Iceberg Model, 1 Iceberg Review Model, 1 Process, 1 Task, 3 Roles, 10 Models, 21 Tools, 19 Techniques.

Download: Facilitation free assets


Facilitation is a basic life skill that can be used profitably to:

identify issues

resolve problems

encourage productive interaction

develop accurate objectives

define the scope of change projects

encourage and empower contributions in a safe, non-threatening environment

engage stakeholders.

Facilitating actually means:

Understanding the goals of the meeting and the organization

Keeping the group on the agenda and moving forward

Involving everyone in the meeting, including drawing out the quiet participants and controlling the domineering ones

Making sure that decisions are made democratically

Facilitation can support organizations, enabling people to work in a collaborative, participative way to tackle key issues and make fundamental decisions.

Effective facilitation can make the difference between a poor and a brilliant decision.

It can make the difference between a solution that has hidden problems and one that is robust.

Facilitation has three basic principles:

A facilitator is a guide to help people move through a process together, not the seat of wisdom and knowledge, That means a facilitator isn't there to give opinions, but to draw out opinions and ideas of the group members

Facilitation focuses on how people participate in the process of learning or planning, not just on what gets achieved

A facilitator is neutral and never takes sides