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Graph Description by Mind Map: Graph Description
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Graph Description

По часовой стрелке на карте размещены различные разделы темы. Не забывайте кликать на маленькие серые значки - заметки и ссылки - справа от названий разделов карты, вот такие:

Да. вот эти самые значки

Чтобы карта была более простой и наглядной, я "спрятала" некоторые веточки. Чтобы увидеть их содержание, кликните на "плюс" в кружке рядом с веточкой. Открываясь, она может перескочить куда-нибудь в поисках места. Не пугайтесь, это нормально. В конце снова кликните на "минус" (он появится там, где был "плюс").

Describing Graphs: Animated vocabulary with examples

A graph report - Video clip

1.Types of graphs

  Different ways of visual presenting information

Bar chart

Гистограмма, столбчатая диаграмма - графическое представление данных в виде столбцов Bar Chart A bar chart consists of rectangular bars arranged horizontally or vertically from the x or y axis. Bar charts are useful for comparing data. In studying a bar chart, you may want to look for the following information: Which is the tallest bar? Which is the shortest bar? Have the bars changed over time? How? How do the bars compare to each other?

Line graph

Линейный график - график, использующий прямые линии для соединения точек данных (data points), чтобы показать изменения переменных Line graph A line graph describes the changes in data over time: Ask yourself: What is the highest level / point? What is the lowest level / point? Is there a point till when the trend was increasing or decreasing? When did the trend change?

Pie chart

круговая [секторная] диаграмма - вид диаграмм, часто используемый в презентационной графике, когда круг делится на секторы, пропорциональные значениям представляемых данных. Каждый сектор закрашивается своим цветом, либо оттенком серого цвета, или заполняется различной штриховкой   Pie Chart A pie chart is a circular chart divided into sectors or pie slices. It presents information in segments of a circle or pie, which together add up to 100%. Here's an example: Ask yourself: Which is the largest segment? Which is the smallest segment? How do the segments compare with each other?

Table

Таблица Table A table presents information in different categories, making it easy to compare. Look out for the following: What is the highest figure? What is the lowest figure? What is second highest, etc.?

3.Planning: How to use your 40 minutes

First 10 minutes

Read the question, make sure you understand the chart, write your introduction (and probably conclusion) by paraphrasing the question.

Second 10 minutes

Look at the chart and try to find 2-3 general points. Don't look at specific details; look for "the big picture". Write 2-3 sentences summarising the information. These are opening sentences for your future paragraphs.

Third 10 minutes

Describe specific details. Try to break this part into 2-3 paragraphs because it looks better.

Final 10 minutes

Read again your description and make corrections if necessary.

2.Analysis of graph

Type of graph

time

comparison

Analysing Data

Как анализировать данные при описании графика? When you examine a plot of data, you should: 1.First, look at the abcissa (horizontal) value, and try to determine what it means. Is it time? If so, does time flow from left to right or right to left? Is it vertical (or horizontal) distance on the earth? If so, which way is up (or north or east). Examine the units, too, to get a feel for the amount of time or distance (or whatever) that is being graphed. 2.Second look at the overall range of variation of the ordinate (vertical) value. What does it represent, physically? Is its range small or large, compared to the typical values? A curve that varies between 0 and 100 is probably telling you something different than one that varies between 99.999 and 100! 3.Third, look at the shape of the curve: --Does the ordinate increase or decrease consistently with increasing abcissa value? If so, the curve is said to 'monotonically' increase or decrease. Even if it is somewhat variable, is there a general trend? Does it mostly increase or decrease with increasing abcissa value? --Does the curve have a series of peaks? If so, how many peaks occur? How wide are they, and how wide is the space between them? A curve might have sharp peaks separated by flat intervals, or broad peaks. --Does the curve have any sharp steps or jumps. If so, how many? How much does the ordinate change across the steps? --Does the overall appearance of the curve remind you of anything: a straight line, a bell curve, waves on the ocean; a staircase; a sawtooth pattern; scallops (волнообразный профиль, зубчатая кайма), etc.?

Getting the Main Idea

One of the most important things to do is get the main idea of the graph.

Do

Click to see some of the MAIN IDEAS in the graph

Don't

Grouping Information

5.Vocabulary

Describing trends

Описываем тенденции (trends) - сравнительно устойчивые направления движения, характер развития явления

Expressing movement: nouns and verbs, Movement: Up, Verbs, rise, rose, Total expenditure rose from $33,611m to $39,165m from 1995 to 1996.(Ирина Большакова), increase, increased, go up, went up, climb, climbed, Маша. This number climbed to approximately 8 million in 2003..., grow, grew, Полина. People's expectation grow as their incomes increase., Nouns, a rise, an increase, Полина. There has been a large increase in the number of Mainland Chinese visitors..., growth, an upward trend, Movement: Down, Verbs, decrease, decreased, fall, fell, Николай. After 1993 the share price fell., decline, declined, go down, went down, drop, dropped, Ирина. After 1993 the share price dropped, dip, dipped, reduce, reduced, Nouns, a fall, EXAMPLES, gradual fall, dramatic fall, marked fall, rapid fall, moderate fall, significant fall, slight fall, sharp fall, sudden fall, a decline, Ирина. After that, however, there was a gradual decline until 1989 and 1990 when it stabilised at about 11 million tonnes, a decrease, a drop, a dip, a reduction, Strong words (with no adverbs!), soar (up), soared (up), shoot up, shot up, surge, surged, rocket, rocketed, boom, boomed, crash, crashed, plummet, plummeted, plunge, plunged, collapse, collapsed, slump, slumped

Describing the movement: adjectives and adverbs, Adjectives, Examples, minimal, slight, Николай. There was a slight recovery in the share price after 1995., slow, gradual, moderate, rapid, sharp, marked, significant, dramatic, sudden, Adverbs, moderately, slightly, minimally, slowly, steadily, Полина. Overall crime rates have steadily declined over the past three years., gradually, Ирина. The share price increased gradually between 1992 and 1994, dramatically, Ирина. This number climbed to approximately 8 million in 2003, then rose dramatically by 4 million to just over 12 million only one year later, sharply, Николай. The share price fell sharply between 1992 and 1993., steeply, substantially, significantly, rapidly, suddenly, quickly, considerably, markedly, swiftly, Notably

Describing position

Описываем расположение точки на графике

EXAMPLES, highest level, lowest level, peak, reach a peak, stand at

Numbers

    useful words and phrases 1. Percent – the word percent comes after a number Examples: More than 25% of the students are from Brazil. More than 25 percent of the students come from Brazil. 2. Percentage - The word percentage comes after words like the, a, this and that. Often, it is preceded by an adjective. Examples: A small percentage of residents have lived in the building for more than 20 years. The percentage of students who live on campus has fallen sharply since the fire. 3. For numbers up to ten, write the numbers in words. For numbers over 10, you can write the numbers in numbers. Examples: Five percent of the employees were late this month. More than 50 percent of the students handed in their assignments late after the long weekend. 4. If the sentence starts with a number, always write it in words. Examples: Wrong: 25 students were from China. Right: Twenty-five students were from China.

Link words

4.Structure of description

Описание графика – последовательность действий

You should use 3 parts:

Part 1: the introduction You will tell the reader what the graph is about. Your introduction will tell the reader a) what sort of graph it is (line graph, bar chart, pie chart or table) b) what the graph is about. You will get most of this information from the question. Just change the wording. Part 2: the body This is the body. It will contain interesting and relevant information from the graph. It will make comparisons where necessary. Part 3: the conclusion This will contain the overall picture of the graph. Write at least 2 sentences.

Part 1: the introduction

Part 2: the body

Part 3: the conclusion

Step 1

Шаг 1 Прочитайте заголовок и надписи на графике, внимательно прочитайте инструкцию. Подберите 2-3 синонима к ключевым словам или словосочетаниям. Напишите первое предложение вводной части, стараясь не копировать фразы из текста задания. (Можете начать словами: "The graph shows…" или “The chart describes…”)

Step 2

Шаг 2 Проанализируйте информацию на графике, отметьте общие тенденции (main trends). Напишите оставшуюся часть введения, описав основные тенденции графика. (Обычно для этого достаточно написать еще одно предложение. Начать его можно, например, так: "Overall, ...").

Step 3

Шаг 3 Спланируйте структуру основной части вашей работы по параграфам (примерно по 1 параграфу на каждую основную тенденцию). Набросайте первое (обобщающее, несущее главную мысль) предложение для каждого параграфа основной части. Лучше, если оно не будет содержать конкретных цифр (“City size increased sharply over the period.” “The most obvious trend in the graph is that women are having fewer babies.” “Oil production has increased slightly in all the countries in the graph”)

Step 4

Шаг 4 Подберите наиболее важные факты (в соответствии с графиком), доказывающие ваши выводы об основных тенденциях. Допишите текст параграфов основной части, приводя в подтверждение своих слов ключевые цифры из графика.

Step 5

Шаг 5 Подумайте, как сформулировать по-другому основные тенденции (используя другие слова). Напишите заключение, сформулировав заново вывод об основных тенденциях графика. Не указывайте цифр в заключительной части (но вы можете использовать такие слова, как "most", "the majority", "a minority", "a small number" и т.д.)

Step 6

Шаг 6 Перечитайте и проверьте ваше описание графика, обращая внимание на: грамматику: правильность употребления словосочетаний, глагольных времен, предлогов организацию текста: его логичность, использование достаточного количества союзов и других слов и выражений, способствующих связности текста. содержание: точно и подробно ли описана информация? Приведены ли детали, подтверждающие topic sentences – предложения, несущие основную мысль (обычно в начале абзаца)?

6.Examples of graph description

Coffee Production

Как передвигаться по карте? Кликните этот серый значок рядом -

Передвигаться по карте можно, установив курсор на белое поле  карты и держа нажатой левую кнопку мыши. Если вы сделали какие-то изменения на карте, а затем решили их отменить, воспользуйтесь стрелочкой "назад" в строчке меню над картой