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Philosophy by Mind Map: Philosophy

1. Innate knowledge, like the god, and holy spirits

2. Kant

3. sceptics

3.1. Socrates

3.1.1. the only thing we know is that we know nothing

3.2. Descartes

3.2.1. Method of radical doubt Sensory information can not be trusted since it is illusory You cant trust the teachers Cognito ergo sum: I think therefore I am The fact that he is doubting cannot be doubted Only absolute, certain statements are the basis of knowledge

3.3. Michel de Montaigne

3.3.1. Both reasoning and observation are unreliable

3.3.2. We should not trust the knowledge

3.3.3. the images of reality provided by our senses are illusory

3.4. Peirce

3.4.1. American Pragmatism

4. empiricism

4.1. antiquity

4.1.1. Aristotle knowledge is obtained through senses "Nothing is in the intellect which was not first in the senses" no second world exists tabula rasa idea We have to learn everything by using our senses. induction knowledge through cause (syllogisms) Deduction From the universal rule to particular cases.

4.2. Bacon

4.2.1. scientific revolution against aristotelian-medieval worldview either bible or aristotele's work answers questions about reality

4.2.2. New Methodology no tabula rasa Our mind does not have the perfect image of the world mind perceives images that are distorted source of distortion induction??? critic on aristoteles syllogism

4.3. British empiricists

4.3.1. Locke All of the knowledge come from experience = No innate knowledge, white board Experience: sensation and reflection Three qualities primary quality Secondary quality Tertiary quality Problems Even Locke himself cannot distinguish the three qualities clearly.

4.3.2. Berkeley Idealism To be is to be perceived

4.3.3. Hume Everything in our minds is perceptions, perceptions Impressions: What you realize what you see Ideas: What you remember what you see Copy principle All our ideas are simply copies of our impressions A large philosophical idea can be divided into several smaller ideas, then divided into their initial impressions No empirical evidence for these ideas Problem Missing the shade of blue

4.4. Lakatos

4.4.1. Demarcation criteria falsifiability sophisticated falsificationism Methodological falsificationism research programs core + protective belt progession successful predictions accept the progressive research program

4.5. Positivism- Positivist

4.5.1. August Comte Separation between the natural science and social science.

4.5.2. Vienna Circle Demarcation Criterion

4.5.3. Wittgenstein 1

4.6. Constructive empiricism

4.6.1. van Fraassen

4.7. Quine

4.7.1. Naturalism

5. rationalism

5.1. antiquity

5.1.1. Plato cave idea (shadows on the wall) we are imprisoned in a cave from the second "true" world and examine shadows on the wall against empiricism: we cant know anything as the truth is in the eye of the beholder true knowledge can only be derived from reasoning and ability to think innate ideas exist we are born with all knowledge but have forgotten about it. so we dont learn but remember (Anamnesis)

5.2. Descartes

5.2.1. Human reason is the basis of knowledge

5.3. Critical rationalism

5.3.1. Karl Popper Criticizes the induction Deduction is the right way Inborn idea Biology instincts Falsificationism Human is fallible Falsifiability Only falsifiable theories are informative Growth of knowledge via falsification Problems Small temporal immunization can be permitted Pseudo-science can also make falsifiable statements It cannot avoid the inductive inference

6. Do not know what type they are belong to