Bolden, R., Gosling, J., Marturano, J., & Dennison, P. (2003). A Review Of Leadership Theory and Competency Frameworks Retrieved from http://centres.exeter.ac.uk/cls/documents/mgmt_standards.pdf
Fiedler's Contingency Model, There is no single best way for managers to lead. Situations will create different leadership style requirements for a manager., Three situations that could define the condition of a managerial task: 1. Leader member relations: How well do the manager and the employees get along? 2. Task structure: Is the job highly structured, fairly unstructured, or somewhere in between? 3. Position power: How much authority does the manager possess?
Hersey-Blanchard Model of Leadership, The developmental levels of a leader's subordinates play the greatest role in determining which leadership styles (leader behaviours) are most appropriate, Directing: The leader provides clear instructions and specific direction. This style is best matched with a low follower readiness level., Coaching: The leader encourages two-way communication and helps build confidence and motivation on the part of the employee, although the leader still has responsibility and controls decision making. Selling style is best matched with a moderate follower readiness level., Supporting: With this style, the leader and followers share decision making and no longer need or expect the relationship to be directive. Participating style is best matched with a moderate follower readiness level., Delegating: This style is appropriate for leaders whose followers are ready to accomplish a particular task and are both competent and motivated to take full responsibility. Delegating style is best matched with a high follower readiness level., To determine the appropriate leadership style to use in a given situation, the leader must first determine the maturity level of the followers in relation to the specific task that the leader is attempting to accomplish through the effort of the followers.
Tannenbaum & Schmidt’s Leadership Continuum, leadership behaviour varies along a continuum and that as one moves away from the autocratic extreme the amount of subordinate participation and involvement in decision taking increases.
Adair’s Action-Centred Leadership Model, The action-centred leader gets the job done through the work team and relationships with fellow managers and staff, An action-centred leader must: • direct the job to be done (task structuring) • support and review the individual people doing it • co-ordinate and foster the work team as a whole
Although there was little consistency in the results of the various trait studies, however, some traits did appear more frequently than others, including: technical skill, friendliness, task motivation, application to task, group task supportiveness, social skill, emotional control, administrative skill, general charisma, and intelligence. Of these, the most widely explored has tended to be “charisma”.
Traits - Adaptable to situations - Alert to social environment - Ambitious and achievement-orientated - Assertive - Cooperative - Decisive - Dependable - Dominant (desire to influence others) - Energetic (high activity level) - Persistent - Self-confident - Tolerant of stress - Willing to assume responsibility Skills - Clever (intelligent) - Conceptually skilled - Creative - Diplomatic and tactful - Fluent in speaking - Knowledgeable about group task - Organised (administrative ability) - Persuasive - Socially skilled
The results of the trait studies were inconclusive. Traits, amongst other things, were hard to measure. How, for example, do we measure traits such as honesty, integrity, loyalty, or diligence? Another approach in the study of leadership had to be found.
focussed on human relationships
focussed on output & performance
McGregor’s Theory X & Theory Y Managers, A leader holding Theory X assumptions would prefer an autocratic style, whereas one holding Theory Y assumptions would prefer a more participative style
Blake and Mouton's Managerial Grid, Five leadership styles, Country Club Management, Team Management, Organisation Man Management, Impoverished Management, Authority Obedience, Focuses on task (production) and employee (people) orientations of managers
Doing real work in support of others instead of only the reverse
the leaders’ duty to serve his/her followers - leadership thus arises out of a desire to serve rather than a desire to lead
Asking questions instead of giving answers
Providing opportunities for others to lead you
Becoming a matchmaker instead of a "central switch"
Seeking common understanding instead of consensus