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1. Dorian Gray was betrayed by art.

1.1. Gray attempted to conceal his evil nature through the painting, however it eventually lead to his exposure.

1.1.1. Similarly, Oscar Wilde attempted to conceal his hedonistic ideals through the novel, although, this soon became the result of his disgrace.

1.1.2. This form of betrayal differs greatly from the play, however, the audience discovers the adverse consequences of betrayal upon the lives of individuals -> shatters foundations and commonly perceived notions about people and society.

1.1.3. Embracing the thought that he has no other worth than his beauty, Dorian Gray utters a prayer that it may never fade; and that the picture would bear the effects of corruption instead of he. -> Faustian bargain with the devil

1.2. Superficiality of Love

1.2.1. Society's love within Wilde's novel is based on the foundations of youth and beauty. The study of beauty forms as a distraction from one's consciousness.

1.2.2. External Discovery: Audience comes to discover how cultural and historical contexts impact on social values -> Contrasts heavily with Shakespeare's more traditional views about love. Characters within the novel realise the triviality and detrimental impacts of superficiality -> death of Dorian Gray

1.3. Dorian comes to the realization that he has the freedom freedom to abandon his morals without censure.

1.3.1. “There are moments, psychologists tell us, when the passion for sin, or what the world calls sin, so dominates a nature that every fibre of the body, every cell of the brain, seems to be instinct with fearful impulses.” At these times, the body is ruled over by its sensation: “Men and women at such moments lose the freedom of their will. They move as automatons move. Choice is taken from them”. The New Hedonist is a master of his own desires. Dorian is a slave to them." Symbolists - advocated individual freedom even in themes of decay, ruin, and the bizarre External Discovery: While freedom provides inner peace and acceptance (as seen in 'The Tempest'), Wilde has depicted freedom as as social construct which overpowering in nature.

2. Freedom / Forgiveness and Liberty

2.1. Discoveries are confronting in nature and inevitably lead to changes within human nature.

2.1.1. "The rarer action is/ in virtue, than in vengeance." Prospero's assertion of his intention to forgive his enemies is as a result of Ariel's compassion. The strong contrasts of the words 'virtue' and 'vengeance', highlights Prospero's dramatic change in nature, as he embraces elements of a discovery process. -> Discovers the power of forgiveness / compassion through Ariel. Repentence Renunciation Reconciliation

2.1.2. Alternatively, in Sylvia Plath's poem, 'Ariel', the persona discovers the self trans-formation and actualization evoked through a unification with nature. “How one we grow, Pivot of heels and knees!” the naturalistic imagery reveals the power of nature in the transformation of a character. Nature is a medium of consumable power and life -> e.g. the tempestuous storm Storm is a metaphor for the transformation (emotional, psychological and spiritual) that characters undergo.

3. Treachery and Betrayal

3.1. The ramifications of a particular discovery vary for individuals.

3.1.1. Prospero's account of the past weighs heavily upon him, whereas for Miranda, it is a source of enlightenment and seeking knowledge. Due to the "dark - backward abysm of time", the quality of rediscovering is difficult for Prospero. The use of assonance further reinforces the time imagery in relation to the rediscovery process. ->metaphorical and symbolic intensely meaningful confronting provocative abyss of emotional turmoil "It takes real courage to endure the sharp pains of self discovery rather than choose the dull pain of unconsciousness that would last the rest of our lives" - Marianne Williamson

3.1.2. Three men of sin: Alonso, Sebastian and Antonio Responsible for usurping Prospero Sebastian: "I remember/ you did supplant your brother Prospero." The effect of this realization only forms as the basis of ambition and sinister motifs to gain power. Audience is enlightened with the unsettling knowledge that Antonio is a sinister persuader and an evil opportunist; "My strong imagination sees a crown/ Dropping upon thy head"

4. Control

4.1. Power Dynamics

4.1.1. External Discovery: Is Shakespeare questioning the power dynamism (political power) of the Era? Prospero's dissatisfaction and surrender of his magic abilities in the finality of the play, emphasises on the futility of immense power - not being used for a greater cause. 'A prince of Power' Prospero uses his magic without injuring anyone - the individuals on the ship are initially unharmed, and he rescued Ariel.

4.1.2. Prospero renounces his art; "By my so potent art. But this rough magic/ I here abjure." The dramatic effect of the lines culminates as a paradox, as Prospero renounces his 'so potent art' and declares he will give up his 'rough magic', and become merely human. External Discovery: Shakespeare embodies Prospero; Shakespeare is giving up his 'Art' and proclaiming his freedom from it. Discover the theatrical illusion. Use of words such as; "revels", "actors", "baseless fabric", "rack".

4.1.3. Natural Order of Life, Chain of Being

4.1.4. As the play progresses, the reader comes to realise that Prospero's powers are attributed to his wand and books. Prospero tells Ferdinand of the power of his wand. "I can disarm thee with this stick" Caliban recognises that Prospero's power comes from his books -> it is to his books that he attributes most efficacy. Caliban proclaims; "First to possess his books; for without them/ He's but a sot"

5. Love

5.1. Facilitated discoveries become the basis upon which individuals build their existence.

5.1.1. Audience discovers the seemingly forceful discoveries imposed upon Miranda by Prospero. Prospero's power dynamism is evident through social values which Miranda embodies. "modesty, the jewel in my dower": Alludes to Miranda's belief that her 'innocence' is her commodity. Miranda has held chastity as a vital quality, however, it reflects upon Prospero's influence on her identity and learning process. Prospero's inculcation has instilled deeply set values upon which Miranda assesses her self - worth and existence. Social Context: Values reflective of the Victorian Era.

5.1.2. Intellectual discoveries may be limiting in nature. -> most beneficial discoveries are ones which are self learnt, as opposed to self taught. Prospero has established himself as Miranda's benefactor of knowledge. "Dost thou attend me? - Sir most heedfully [Miranda]" Miranda's deferential nature is evidence of Prospero's preordained discovery process upon her. Biased and predetermined findings.

5.1.3. Discoveries can weigh heavily upon the mind of the newly initiated. New discoveries can emotionally burden an individual's thought process. Prospero's paternal love towards Miranda has resulted in his manipulation of her discovery processes, thus hindering Miranda's ability to engage with the world. Contrastingly, Miranda wholly trusts Prospero , and thus, her discovery places an emotional burden on him ->Prospero is wholly responsible for Miranda's discovery process.

5.2. Paternal love; child - like love given n return; romantic love; and friendly love

6. 'The Tempest' - Shakespeare

6.1. The Island

6.1.1. Audience comes to discover the strangeness of the Island as a requisite for supernatural events to occur. Some discoveries are confronting in nature and can be embraced in accordance to one's own cultural views. -> subvert / challenge currently held assumptions about society. The Other "What/ have we here, a man, or a fish? dead or alive? a/ fish, he smells like a fish" The use of redundant prose by Trinculo emphasises his confronting discovery of Caliban. Discovery of a place Colonialism and Imperialism "The only real voyage of discovery consists not in seeking new landscapes, but in having new eyes" - Marcel Proust

6.1.2. The island is described by Caliban as "full of noises,/ Sounds, and sweet airs... Sometimes a thousand twangling instruments/ Will hum" The use of poetic and lyrical language emphasises on the aspects of the supernatural. Illusion vs Reality

7. 'The Picture of Dorian Gray' - Oscar Wilde

7.1. Discover the malevolent consequences of control and influence upon individuals.

7.1.1. Discoveries are confronting processes which challenge and subvert currently held ideologies about the functioning of the world. Homosexuality in the novel is obvious without being overt, many wish their sins could be unrestrained without being seen. Contrasts heavily with the values presented by Shakespeare and embodied though Miranda -> chastity

7.1.2. Detrimental Influences due to power, status and control. Dorian Gray's influence upon Basil Hallward -> leads to Basil's 'fall from grace' and eventual death. Basil Hallward's painting suggests that an artwork can alter- by magic or a supernatural force – to reflect the soul of its subject Novel: complex icon of narcissism and self-hatred -> desire for youth and beauty Lord Henry's hedonistic ideals about the world shatter Gray's realities. -> facilitated discovery processes (Lord Henry manipulates Gray's thought process and self - actualisations) Metaphorical control of the artwork and literature upon Gray. "His eye fell on the yellow book that Lord Henry had sent him. What was it, he wondered... It was the strangest book that he had ever read." Illusion vs Reality

7.1.3. Gray is preoccupied with intellectual rationalizations that are ultimately self-deluding and self-destructive. Dorian Gray leads an existence of hollow experience and emotion e,g. smoking opium, public and private extravagances. His lack of experience cannot be attributed to all his discovery processes, however, Gray did fail to undergo a self - actualization which hindered his ability to experience and discover.