Learning Design and Technology

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Learning Design and Technology by Mind Map: Learning Design and Technology

1. Instructional design model

1.1. WATER model

1.2. Dick and Carey system approach

1.2.1. Dick and Carey system approach

1.3. ASSURE model

1.3.1. ASSURE Model

1.4. KEMP design model

1.4.1. KEMP design model

1.5. ADDIE model

1.5.1. ADDIE model


2.1. Analysis

2.2. Design

2.3. Development

2.4. Implementation

2.5. Evaluation

3. Delivery learning activities

3.1. Instructional Theory

3.1.1. Conversation (discussion)

3.1.2. Elaboration (step)

3.1.3. Gagne's nine events of instruction (sequence) Getting started 1.Gain attention 2.Inform learners of objectives 3.Stimulate recall of prior learning Delivering the goods 4.Present the content 5.Guide learning Checking comprehension 6.Elicit performance (practice) 7.Provide feedback Taking it to the next level 8.Assess performance 9.Enhance retention and transfer

3.1.4. Bloom's Taxonomy (order of thinking skills, goal & objectives) New version Original version Bloom's Taxonomy Action Verbs

4. Learning environment

4.1. Learning Theory

4.1.1. Behaviorism

4.1.2. Cognitivism

4.1.3. Constrctivism

5. Session 2 Performance analysis & other types of analysis

5.1. Task Analysis

5.1.1. Actual performance

5.1.2. Clarify conditions for competent performance

5.1.3. Establish minimum expectations or standards

5.2. Learner Analysis

5.2.1. Avoid wrong assumptions Assume all learner are alike Assume all learners are like ourselves Examine diversity but not similarity among learners

5.2.2. Important assumptions of All Learners: Maslow's hierarchy of needs Physiological needs Safety needs Love and belonging needs Esteem needs Self-actualization needs

5.3. Performance Analysis

5.3.1. Can't do Knowledge/skill or inherent ability deficiency

5.3.2. Won't do Causes of performance gaps: Wile's model Environmental Analyzing Performance Problems Resources Internal

5.4. Needs Assessment

5.4.1. When Actual performance < Expected / Optimal performance

5.4.2. Why To determine if training/education can correct performance gap

5.4.3. How Identify relevant stakeholders Choose appropriate tools to use: questionnaire, interview, observation

6. Session 5 Designing Instruction Ⅱ

6.1. Five First Principles of Instruction

6.1.1. "Learning is promoted when learners are engaged in solving problems"

6.1.2. "Learning is promoted when existing knowledge is activated as a foundation for new knowledge."

6.1.3. "Learning is promoted when new knowledge is demonstrated to the learner."

6.1.4. "Learning is promoted when knowledge is applied by the learner."

6.1.5. "Learning is promoted when new knowledge is integrated into the learner's world."

6.2. 7 principles of good teaching

6.2.1. 1.Good practice encourages student-faculty contact

6.2.2. 2.Good practice encourages cooperation/interaction among students

6.2.3. 3.Good practice encourages active learning

6.2.4. 4.Good practice gives prompt feedback

6.2.5. 5.Good practice emphasizes time on task

6.2.6. 6.Good practice communicates high expectations

6.2.7. 7.Good practice respects diverse talents and ways of learning

7. Session 8 Evaluation of Training Programmes & Summary

7.1. Evaluation outcome

7.1.1. 4 levels Reaction Surveys Learning Short-form test Short answer test Essay Performance test Written report, paper Project Presentation Portfolio Behaviour Observe performer first-hand Survey key people who observe performer Results

8. Session 4 Designing Instruction

8.1. Learning Objectives

8.1.1. Learning goals VS Learning objectives Goals Desirable state of affairs (Gagne, Briggs & Wager, 1992) Not measurable Objectives Clear communication of what will be learned Inform the leaner how they will demonstrate their learning Communicate expectations to learners Provide specifications for instructional products

8.1.2. ABCD approach of writing objectives Audience (Can be part of the statement) Write for an individual student, not a group Not always necessary to include, except when it clarifies things Behavior (Performance) Should be observable by an outsider Define the "level" of learning Should be what the learner does, not what the teacher or instruction does Should include mention of the skills or knowledge a learner has attained Conditions (during Performance) Conditions at the time of the test or performance Not acceptable Common conditions Degree (Criterion, Quality or Standard) How good is "good enough"? Don't say "100%" unless perfection is the only acceptable level of performance Observable performances usually require a judge or rater Can also refer to external standards (if they exist)

8.2. 9 Instructional Events

8.2.1. Gain attention

8.2.2. Inform learner of lesson objedctive

8.2.3. Stimulate recall of prior learning

8.2.4. Present stimuli

8.2.5. Guiding learning

8.2.6. Elicit performance

8.2.7. Provide informative feedback

8.2.8. Assess performance

8.2.9. Enhance retention and learning transfer

9. Session 1 Introduction

9.1. Introduction

9.1.1. ADDIE Analysis whether there is an instructional problem whether the objective is established learner needs are evaluated a project plan for design and development is laid out Design Develop Implement Evaluate

10. Session 3 Foundations of Learning

10.1. Behavorism

10.1.1. Classical conditioning

10.1.2. Operant conditioning Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcemnt Punishment

10.2. Cognitivism

10.2.1. Cognitive Information Processing Model: (CIP) Model Implications Gain learners' attention Recall prior knowledge Recognize limitations of the working memory Encourage multiple representations for encoding Provide organized instruction to facilitate encoding Stage theory Sensory memory/register Short-term memory Long-term memory

10.3. Constructivism

10.3.1. Personal/individual constructivism

10.3.2. Social Constructivism

10.3.3. Constructivist conditions for learning (Driscoll, 2000) Embed learning in relevant and realistic settings Provide for social negotiation Encourage ownership in learning Nurture self-reflection of knowledge construction

11. Session 6 Development and implementation in ADDIE model

11.1. Recommendations from the multimedia learning

11.1.1. Co-existed

11.1.2. Present on the same screen

11.1.3. Redunancy

11.1.4. Signaling

11.1.5. Own pace of learners

11.1.6. Interactive

11.2. Present information effectively

11.2.1. Prototypes Test idea Models of the storyboards Rapid prototypes To test ou ta user interface To test the database structure and flow of information in a training system To test the effectiveness and appeal of a particular instructional strategy To develop clients and sponsors a more concrete model of the intended instructional product To get use feedback and reactions to two competing approaches Evaluation Who evaluate There must be some kind of sign-off

12. Session 7 Use of technology to support learning

12.1. Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education

12.1.1. Good Practice Encourages Student-Faculty Contact

12.1.2. Good Practice Encourages Cooperation among Students

12.1.3. Good Practice Encourages Active Learning

12.1.4. Good Practice Gives Prompt Feedback

12.1.5. Good Practice Emphasizes Time on Task

12.1.6. Good Practice Communicates High Expections

12.1.7. Good Practice Respects Diverse Talents and Ways of Learning