Learning Design and Technology

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Learning Design and Technology by Mind Map: Learning Design and Technology

1. Instructional design model

1.1. WATER model

1.2. Dick and Carey system approach

1.2.1. Dick and Carey system approach

1.3. ASSURE model

1.3.1. ASSURE Model

1.4. KEMP design model

1.4.1. KEMP design model

1.5. ADDIE model

1.5.1. ADDIE model

2. ADDIE

2.1. Analysis

2.2. Design

2.3. Development

2.4. Implementation

2.5. Evaluation

3. Delivery learning activities

3.1. Instructional Theory

3.1.1. Conversation (discussion)

3.1.2. Elaboration (step)

3.1.3. Gagne's nine events of instruction (sequence)

3.1.3.1. Getting started

3.1.3.1.1. 1.Gain attention

3.1.3.1.2. 2.Inform learners of objectives

3.1.3.1.3. 3.Stimulate recall of prior learning

3.1.3.2. Delivering the goods

3.1.3.2.1. 4.Present the content

3.1.3.2.2. 5.Guide learning

3.1.3.3. Checking comprehension

3.1.3.3.1. 6.Elicit performance (practice)

3.1.3.3.2. 7.Provide feedback

3.1.3.4. Taking it to the next level

3.1.3.4.1. 8.Assess performance

3.1.3.4.2. 9.Enhance retention and transfer

3.1.4. Bloom's Taxonomy (order of thinking skills, goal & objectives)

3.1.4.1. New version

3.1.4.2. Original version

3.1.4.3. Bloom's Taxonomy Action Verbs

4. Learning environment

4.1. Learning Theory

4.1.1. Behaviorism

4.1.2. Cognitivism

4.1.3. Constrctivism

5. Session 2 Performance analysis & other types of analysis

5.1. Task Analysis

5.1.1. Actual performance

5.1.2. Clarify conditions for competent performance

5.1.3. Establish minimum expectations or standards

5.2. Learner Analysis

5.2.1. Avoid wrong assumptions

5.2.1.1. Assume all learner are alike

5.2.1.2. Assume all learners are like ourselves

5.2.1.3. Examine diversity but not similarity among learners

5.2.2. Important assumptions of All Learners: Maslow's hierarchy of needs

5.2.2.1. Physiological needs

5.2.2.2. Safety needs

5.2.2.3. Love and belonging needs

5.2.2.4. Esteem needs

5.2.2.5. Self-actualization needs

5.3. Performance Analysis

5.3.1. Can't do

5.3.1.1. Knowledge/skill or inherent ability deficiency

5.3.2. Won't do

5.3.2.1. Causes of performance gaps: Wile's model

5.3.2.1.1. Environmental

5.3.2.1.2. Analyzing Performance Problems

5.3.2.1.3. Resources

5.3.2.1.4. Internal

5.4. Needs Assessment

5.4.1. When

5.4.1.1. Actual performance < Expected / Optimal performance

5.4.2. Why

5.4.2.1. To determine if training/education can correct performance gap

5.4.3. How

5.4.3.1. Identify relevant stakeholders

5.4.3.2. Choose appropriate tools to use: questionnaire, interview, observation

6. Session 5 Designing Instruction Ⅱ

6.1. Five First Principles of Instruction

6.1.1. "Learning is promoted when learners are engaged in solving problems"

6.1.2. "Learning is promoted when existing knowledge is activated as a foundation for new knowledge."

6.1.3. "Learning is promoted when new knowledge is demonstrated to the learner."

6.1.4. "Learning is promoted when knowledge is applied by the learner."

6.1.5. "Learning is promoted when new knowledge is integrated into the learner's world."

6.2. 7 principles of good teaching

6.2.1. 1.Good practice encourages student-faculty contact

6.2.2. 2.Good practice encourages cooperation/interaction among students

6.2.3. 3.Good practice encourages active learning

6.2.4. 4.Good practice gives prompt feedback

6.2.5. 5.Good practice emphasizes time on task

6.2.6. 6.Good practice communicates high expectations

6.2.7. 7.Good practice respects diverse talents and ways of learning

7. Session 8 Evaluation of Training Programmes & Summary

7.1. Evaluation outcome

7.1.1. 4 levels

7.1.1.1. Reaction

7.1.1.1.1. Surveys

7.1.1.2. Learning

7.1.1.2.1. Short-form test

7.1.1.2.2. Short answer test

7.1.1.2.3. Essay

7.1.1.2.4. Performance test

7.1.1.2.5. Written report, paper

7.1.1.2.6. Project

7.1.1.2.7. Presentation

7.1.1.2.8. Portfolio

7.1.1.3. Behaviour

7.1.1.3.1. Observe performer first-hand

7.1.1.3.2. Survey key people who observe performer

7.1.1.4. Results

8. Session 4 Designing Instruction

8.1. Learning Objectives

8.1.1. Learning goals VS Learning objectives

8.1.1.1. Goals

8.1.1.1.1. Desirable state of affairs (Gagne, Briggs & Wager, 1992)

8.1.1.1.2. Not measurable

8.1.1.2. Objectives

8.1.1.2.1. Clear communication of what will be learned

8.1.1.2.2. Inform the leaner how they will demonstrate their learning

8.1.1.2.3. Communicate expectations to learners

8.1.1.2.4. Provide specifications for instructional products

8.1.2. ABCD approach of writing objectives

8.1.2.1. Audience (Can be part of the statement)

8.1.2.1.1. Write for an individual student, not a group

8.1.2.1.2. Not always necessary to include, except when it clarifies things

8.1.2.2. Behavior (Performance)

8.1.2.2.1. Should be observable by an outsider

8.1.2.2.2. Define the "level" of learning

8.1.2.2.3. Should be what the learner does, not what the teacher or instruction does

8.1.2.2.4. Should include mention of the skills or knowledge a learner has attained

8.1.2.3. Conditions (during Performance)

8.1.2.3.1. Conditions at the time of the test or performance

8.1.2.3.2. Not acceptable

8.1.2.3.3. Common conditions

8.1.2.4. Degree (Criterion, Quality or Standard)

8.1.2.4.1. How good is "good enough"?

8.1.2.4.2. Don't say "100%" unless perfection is the only acceptable level of performance

8.1.2.4.3. Observable performances usually require a judge or rater

8.1.2.4.4. Can also refer to external standards (if they exist)

8.2. 9 Instructional Events

8.2.1. Gain attention

8.2.2. Inform learner of lesson objedctive

8.2.3. Stimulate recall of prior learning

8.2.4. Present stimuli

8.2.5. Guiding learning

8.2.6. Elicit performance

8.2.7. Provide informative feedback

8.2.8. Assess performance

8.2.9. Enhance retention and learning transfer

9. Session 1 Introduction

9.1. Introduction

9.1.1. ADDIE

9.1.1.1. Analysis

9.1.1.1.1. whether there is an instructional problem

9.1.1.1.2. whether the objective is established

9.1.1.1.3. learner needs are evaluated

9.1.1.1.4. a project plan for design and development is laid out

9.1.1.2. Design

9.1.1.3. Develop

9.1.1.4. Implement

9.1.1.5. Evaluate

10. Session 3 Foundations of Learning

10.1. Behavorism

10.1.1. Classical conditioning

10.1.2. Operant conditioning

10.1.2.1. Positive Reinforcement

10.1.2.2. Negative Reinforcemnt

10.1.2.3. Punishment

10.2. Cognitivism

10.2.1. Cognitive Information Processing Model: (CIP) Model

10.2.1.1. Implications

10.2.1.1.1. Gain learners' attention

10.2.1.1.2. Recall prior knowledge

10.2.1.1.3. Recognize limitations of the working memory

10.2.1.1.4. Encourage multiple representations for encoding

10.2.1.1.5. Provide organized instruction to facilitate encoding

10.2.1.2. Stage theory

10.2.1.2.1. Sensory memory/register

10.2.1.2.2. Short-term memory

10.2.1.2.3. Long-term memory

10.3. Constructivism

10.3.1. Personal/individual constructivism

10.3.2. Social Constructivism

10.3.3. Constructivist conditions for learning (Driscoll, 2000)

10.3.3.1. Embed learning in relevant and realistic settings

10.3.3.2. Provide for social negotiation

10.3.3.3. Encourage ownership in learning

10.3.3.4. Nurture self-reflection of knowledge construction

11. Session 6 Development and implementation in ADDIE model

11.1. Recommendations from the multimedia learning

11.1.1. Co-existed

11.1.2. Present on the same screen

11.1.3. Redunancy

11.1.4. Signaling

11.1.5. Own pace of learners

11.1.6. Interactive

11.2. Present information effectively

11.2.1. Prototypes

11.2.1.1. Test idea

11.2.1.2. Models of the storyboards

11.2.1.3. Rapid prototypes

11.2.1.3.1. To test ou ta user interface

11.2.1.3.2. To test the database structure and flow of information in a training system

11.2.1.3.3. To test the effectiveness and appeal of a particular instructional strategy

11.2.1.3.4. To develop clients and sponsors a more concrete model of the intended instructional product

11.2.1.3.5. To get use feedback and reactions to two competing approaches

11.2.1.4. Evaluation

11.2.1.4.1. Who evaluate

11.2.1.4.2. There must be some kind of sign-off

12. Session 7 Use of technology to support learning

12.1. Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education

12.1.1. Good Practice Encourages Student-Faculty Contact

12.1.2. Good Practice Encourages Cooperation among Students

12.1.3. Good Practice Encourages Active Learning

12.1.4. Good Practice Gives Prompt Feedback

12.1.5. Good Practice Emphasizes Time on Task

12.1.6. Good Practice Communicates High Expections

12.1.7. Good Practice Respects Diverse Talents and Ways of Learning