wk2-1.3-1.4:Cell organelles

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wk2-1.3-1.4:Cell organelles by Mind Map: wk2-1.3-1.4:Cell organelles

1. cell surface

1.1. all cells surrounded by a PM

1.1.1. single membrane

1.2. PM

1.2.1. selectively permeable

1.2.1.1. lipids are amphipathic

1.2.1.2. phospholipid bilayer

1.2.1.2.1. hydrophilic head

1.2.1.2.2. hydrophobic tails

1.2.1.2.3. hydrophobic core

1.2.1.2.4. too large substances

1.2.2. separates between

1.2.2.1. ICF

1.2.2.1.1. intracellular fluid

1.2.2.2. ECF

1.2.2.2.1. extracellular fluid

1.2.3. two faces

1.2.3.1. non cytosolic face

1.2.3.1.1. faces outside of the cell

1.2.3.2. cytosolic face

1.2.3.2.1. faces inside of cell

1.2.4. complex of

1.2.4.1. lipids

1.2.4.1.1. ampiphatic

1.2.4.1.2. phsopholipids

1.2.4.2. proteins

1.2.4.3. carbohydrates

1.2.4.3.1. gen formula CnH2nOn

1.2.4.3.2. glycoproteins

1.2.4.3.3. peptidoglycans

1.2.4.3.4. glucosaminoglycans

1.2.4.4. all similar but have diff. ratios

1.2.4.4.1. all hydrocarbons

1.2.5. Fluid mosaic model 1952

1.2.5.1. integral membrane proteins

1.2.5.1.1. span the membrane

1.2.5.2. peripheral membrane proteins

1.2.5.2.1. stuck on the outside

1.2.5.3. function

1.2.5.3.1. transport hydrophilic solutes

1.3. cell wall

1.3.1. only plant cells and prokaryotes(bacteria)

1.3.1.1. Plant cell walls

1.3.1.1.1. made from cellulose

1.3.1.1.2. cellulose

1.3.1.2. bacterial cell walls

1.3.1.2.1. made from peptidoglycans

1.3.1.2.2. can be surrounded by a gelatinous polysaccharide layer

1.3.1.2.3. bacteria is stained with Gram's Stain

1.3.2. surrounds PM

1.3.3. function

1.3.3.1. limits passage of molecules into/out of cell

1.4. cell surface appendages

1.4.1. PM/CW can have

1.4.1.1. villi/microvilli

1.4.1.1.1. increase cell's SA

1.4.1.2. cilia

1.4.1.2.1. move ECF

1.4.1.3. flagella

1.4.1.3.1. move cell

1.4.2. Cell SA:V ratio

1.4.2.1. cuboidal cells

1.4.2.1.1. SA

1.4.2.1.2. V

1.4.2.2. Spherical cells

1.4.2.2.1. SA

1.4.2.2.2. V

2. Nucleus and Nucleolus

2.1. contains cell blueprint for proteins

2.1.1. DNA

2.1.1.1. packaged by histone proteins to form chromatin

2.1.1.1.1. chromatin is condensed to form chromosomes

2.1.1.1.2. chromatin

2.2. nucleolus

2.2.1. area in nucleus

2.2.2. site of transcription and ribosomal synthesis

2.3. Mitosis

2.3.1. replicate DNA blueprint during interphase

2.3.2. non dividing cell

2.3.2.1. DNA template is used for protein synthesis

2.3.2.1.1. protein synthesis

2.4. Structure

2.4.1. nuclear envelope

2.4.1.1. double membrane

2.4.1.1.1. to prevent chromosomes and DNA from leaving nucleus

2.4.1.2. around nucleus

2.4.1.3. contains nuclear pores

2.4.1.3.1. needed for transportation

2.4.1.4. separate from cytoplasm

2.4.2. no membrane around nucleolus

2.5. centrioles

2.5.1. only found adjacent to nucleus in animal cells

2.5.2. perpendicular pair of microtubules

2.5.2.1. myosin and actin

2.5.3. 9-fold each

2.5.4. function

2.5.4.1. organise mitotic/meiotic spindle

3. mitochondrion

3.1. double membrane

3.1.1. inner membrane

3.1.1.1. convoluted(folded) into cristae

3.1.1.1.1. increase SA

3.1.2. outer membrane

3.1.3. both membranes separated by intermembranal space(aqueous)

3.1.3.1. has villi that increase SA

3.2. function

3.2.1. site of cellular respiration

3.2.1.1. equation

3.2.2. catalyse aerobic catabolism of C-based

3.2.2.1. carbs,lipids,and proteins

3.2.2.2. by oxidative phosphorylation

3.2.3. harness energy as ATP

3.2.4. oxidative metabolism of glucose

3.2.5. generate and metabolise reactive O2 species(ROS) + free radicals

3.2.6. mediate apoptosis

3.2.6.1. programmed cell death

3.3. has own mit.DNA+ribosomes

3.3.1. maternally inherited

3.3.1.1. male mitochondria are short lived

3.4. have series of oxidative enzymes

4. Synthetic organelles

4.1. chloroplasts

4.1.1. photosynthesis

4.1.2. only in photosynthetic cells

4.1.3. catalyse anabolic metabolism

4.1.4. harness light energy photosynthesis

4.1.5. equation

4.1.6. Double membrane

4.1.7. granum(made of thylakoids)

4.1.7.1. increase SA

4.1.8. has own DNA

4.2. Ribosomes

4.2.1. translation of proteins

4.2.1.1. polysomes

4.2.1.1.1. several ribosomes translating the same mRNA template

4.2.2. in nucleolus(nucleus)

4.2.2.1. Transcription of DNA>RNA

4.2.2.1.1. mRNA

4.2.2.1.2. tRNA

4.2.2.1.3. rRNA

4.2.3. structure

4.2.3.1. 2 subunits

4.2.3.1.1. small

4.2.3.1.2. large

4.2.3.1.3. each subunit=complex of

4.2.4. S/sv=svedberg unit

4.2.4.1. a non SI unit for which sedimentary rate is expressed

4.2.4.2. Sedimentation rate

4.2.4.2.1. for particle of given size and shape

4.2.4.2.2. measures how fast particle sediments/settles

4.2.4.3. how much you need to spin something before it comes it

4.2.5. prokaryotes

4.2.5.1. 70S ribosomes

4.2.5.1.1. 30S+40S

4.2.6. Eukaryotes

4.2.6.1. 80S

4.3. endoplasmic reticulum

4.3.1. protein and lipid synthesis

4.3.2. continuous highly convoluted membrane system

4.3.2.1. runs from nucleus>PM

4.3.3. attached to nucelar membrane

4.3.4. 2 types

4.3.4.1. RER

4.3.4.1.1. rough endoplasmic reticulum

4.3.4.1.2. when there are ribosomes on the ER for a specific period of time

4.3.4.2. SER

4.3.4.2.1. smooth endoplasmic retiuculum

4.3.4.2.2. no ribosomes present on the ER for a specific period of time

4.3.4.3. synthesis usually occurs in lumen of cristernae

4.4. golgi apparatus

4.4.1. protein processing

4.4.1.1. occurs b4

4.4.1.1.1. secretion

4.4.1.1.2. insertion into PMs

4.4.2. protein packaging,sorting and secretion

4.4.2.1. enzymes in GA add carbs

4.4.2.1.1. carbs + lipids

4.4.2.1.2. carbs+protein

4.4.2.2. GA sorts molecules for final destination

4.4.3. series of specialised,stacked cisternae through which proteins are processed

4.4.4. molecules enter via cis face

4.4.4.1. incoming

4.4.5. molecules exit via trans face

4.4.5.1. move via vesicular trafficking

4.4.5.2. transporting

4.5. vesicles

4.5.1. small

4.5.2. spherical

4.5.3. sealed

4.5.3.1. hydrophobic core

4.5.3.2. lipid bilayer

4.5.3.3. has ICF and lumen

4.5.4. do not confuse with micelle

4.5.4.1. formed from detergent molecules

4.5.4.2. single layer

4.5.5. vesicular trafficking

4.5.5.1. vesicle buds off from cisternae of one membrane(cis face)

4.5.5.2. passes through cytoplasm and fuses with another membrane

4.5.5.3. traffics lumenal+membrane content of vesicle

5. digestive organelles

5.1. lysosomes

5.1.1. LE fuses with vesicle containing lysozymes(acidic hydrolases)

5.1.2. low pH

5.1.2.1. hydrolyse chemical bonds to degrade contents of lysosome

5.2. peroxisomes

5.2.1. contains peroxidase enzymes

5.2.2. reaction equation

5.2.2.1. RH2+H2O2>R+H2O2(HOOH)

5.2.2.2. hydrogen peroxide(HOOH)

5.2.2.2.1. toxic

5.2.2.2.2. found in hair dye

5.2.2.2.3. very reactive

5.2.2.2.4. can kill bacteria

5.2.3. nyloperoxidase

5.2.4. also contain catalase enzymes

5.2.4.1. break down/hydrolyse oxic HOOH

5.2.4.2. RH2+HOOH>2H2O

5.2.5. function

5.2.5.1. initial catabolism of LC fatty acids,BC fatty acids,amino acids and polyamines

5.3. endosomes

5.3.1. incoming vesicle formed by endocytosis

5.3.1.1. buds of from PM

5.3.1.2. 2 types of endocytosis

5.3.1.2.1. pinocytosis

5.3.1.2.2. phagocytosis

5.3.2. 3 types of endosomes

5.3.2.1. EE

5.3.2.1.1. early endosome

5.3.2.2. RE

5.3.2.2.1. recycled endosome

5.3.2.3. LE

5.3.2.3.1. late endosome(large)

6. prokaryotes vs eukaryotes

6.1. outdated terms

6.1.1. karyon

6.1.1.1. nut kernel

6.1.2. e.g. nucleus and nuclear envelope/double membrane

6.1.3. prokaryotes

6.1.3.1. b4 nucleus

6.1.3.1.1. absence of nucleus

6.1.4. eukaryotes

6.1.4.1. have a nucleus

6.1.4.2. not all eukaryotic cells have nuclei

6.1.4.2.1. e.g.mature RBCs in all mammals

6.1.4.2.2. most non mammalian vertebrates have nucleated RBCs

6.1.4.2.3. mature lense fibre cells of the eye have no nuclei,mitochondria, or ER

6.1.5. difference should be absence/presence of membrane bound organelles

6.1.5.1. e.g. nucleus,mitochondrion

6.1.5.2. not all cells have same no. of mitochondria

6.1.5.2.1. many mitochondria are only found in sites with high metabolism

6.1.5.2.2. e.g. hepatocytes have 25,000 mitochondria per cell 25%

6.1.5.2.3. unicellular

6.1.5.2.4. erythrocytes+some unicellular eukaryotes have none

6.1.5.3. not all cells have same no. of Golgi

6.1.5.3.1. abundant in secretary cells and endocrine cells

6.1.6. only common organelle

6.1.6.1. ribosome

6.2. DNA

6.2.1. prokaryotes

6.2.1.1. nucleoid

6.2.1.1.1. bacterial chromosome

6.2.1.1.2. single circular DNA

6.2.1.2. metabolism occurs in cytosol

6.2.1.2.1. no ER/mitochondria

6.3. photosynthesis can occur without chloroplasts

6.3.1. some prokaryotes are photosynthetic

6.3.1.1. New Topic

6.3.1.1.1. Cyanob

6.4. classification refers to organisms not cells

6.4.1. cells not either prokaryotic/eukaryotic

6.4.2. Prokaryota/Eukaryota

6.4.2.1. 5 eukaryotic kingdoms

6.4.2.1.1. multicellular

6.4.2.1.2. unicellular

6.4.2.2. 2 kingdoms of prokaryotes+many phylums

6.4.2.2.1. Bacteria

6.4.2.2.2. Archaea

6.4.2.3. unicellular/multicellular not differentiation

6.4.2.3.1. some prokaryotes are multicellular at specific stages of life cycle

6.4.2.3.2. some eukaryotes are unicellular