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Rise of Communism

Impact of WWI and the TSAR

many protests on the streets, Russians wanted to end the war because of food and coal shortage, soldiers did not see the point of fighting, Farmers wanted land (fairer distribution), Russians wanted food (Bread Riots) as most food were sent to feed the soldiers instead

TSAR abdicated on 15th March after realising even his own soldiers did not stop the protest (instead they joined in), A Provisional Government was set up.

Failure of Provisional Government

Lasted only 8 months

Its main job was to govern Russia until it was ready for a NEW PARLIAMENT, FAILED. why?, Kept Russia in WWI, No Land reforms, Had to struggle for power with the Soviets, Thus, It was unable to solve the grievances of the people. People wanted CHANGE!

Task, Hold elections for Russians, grant a full and immediate amnesty to political prisoners and exile, coorperate with the committees of workers, peasants, soldiers (soviets)

October 17 Revolution

Led by Lenin although the Provisional Army ordered for his arrest, Lenin established the FIRST COMMUNIST REGIME!

Provisional Government latter depended on Bolshevik's help to fight the Russian Army, On the 6th and 7th Nov, the red guards took over key buildings and arrested members of Provisional Govt.

Bolshevik Victory in the Civil War

fought a bitter civil war, Lasted Three Years

reds(bolsheviks) vs whites(anti communists/tsar supporters/social revolutionaries etc), Reds led by Trotksy

in 1924, former members of the Russian Empire combined to form the Soviet Union or USSR (Union of Soviet Socialists Republic)

Rise of Stalin

Outwitted his rivals

No one expected him to take over Lenin

Lenin had wanted his will to be read out in which he expressed his views on his possible successors but it was not done

Pretended to be Close to Lenin

tricked Trotsky into missing Lenin's Funeral, Gave him a wrong date, Many party members were angry with Trotsky for not appearing at the Funeral

Gave himself the role of the Chief Mourner in the Funeral.

Trotsky's weaknesses

Arrogant and compacent, did not see the need to gather and attract more support

had only a narrow base of support, only from soldiers/students and youths

his idea of world revolution did not go down well with the masses, The people were more concerned that the basic needs of the people were met first!

Made alliances

form alliances with other party members to drive his enemies out, Made use of Kamenev and Zinoviev to get Trotksy out., He would later turned against them

Use his position as a General Secretary

had the power to appoint his own supporters as officials, Thus many officials owe their position to him thus was loyal, able to pack a 1925 meeting with his supporters - voted Trotsky out of the party!

controlled the local party committees

Stalin's Plans


Multiple Lands were joined and 90% of harvest given to the government while they are allowed to keep 10% for themselves. The government would then share the profits with everyone!


5 Year PLans, Total of Three 5 Year Plans wwere carried out



Riots and resistance, Stalin responded by killing 17 million horses to pressure people into the use of tractors

Getting rid of people who oppossed collectivisation, sent to Gulags

Famine, Severe Food Shortages, USA offered help but Stalin rejected


Poor Work Conditions

System of rewards/trainings

Changing living conditions

Rule of TERROR

Fear and suspicion, Anybody could denounce anybody and just report to NKVD

Mass Executions, 20 million Russians became victims

Religious Persecutions, Stalin thought that religion promoted harmful superstitions

PURGES, wrongfully accused people to remove his threats, E.g Kamenev

Show Trials, confessed to charges as they were threatened and pressured from within

Tight control over culture

New node