many protests on the streets, Russians wanted to end the war because of food and coal shortage, soldiers did not see the point of fighting, Farmers wanted land (fairer distribution), Russians wanted food (Bread Riots) as most food were sent to feed the soldiers instead
TSAR abdicated on 15th March after realising even his own soldiers did not stop the protest (instead they joined in), A Provisional Government was set up.
Lasted only 8 months
Its main job was to govern Russia until it was ready for a NEW PARLIAMENT, FAILED. why?, Kept Russia in WWI, No Land reforms, Had to struggle for power with the Soviets, Thus, It was unable to solve the grievances of the people. People wanted CHANGE!
Task, Hold elections for Russians, grant a full and immediate amnesty to political prisoners and exile, coorperate with the committees of workers, peasants, soldiers (soviets)
Led by Lenin although the Provisional Army ordered for his arrest, Lenin established the FIRST COMMUNIST REGIME!
Provisional Government latter depended on Bolshevik's help to fight the Russian Army, On the 6th and 7th Nov, the red guards took over key buildings and arrested members of Provisional Govt.
fought a bitter civil war, Lasted Three Years
reds(bolsheviks) vs whites(anti communists/tsar supporters/social revolutionaries etc), Reds led by Trotksy
in 1924, former members of the Russian Empire combined to form the Soviet Union or USSR (Union of Soviet Socialists Republic)
No one expected him to take over Lenin
Lenin had wanted his will to be read out in which he expressed his views on his possible successors but it was not done
tricked Trotsky into missing Lenin's Funeral, Gave him a wrong date, Many party members were angry with Trotsky for not appearing at the Funeral
Gave himself the role of the Chief Mourner in the Funeral.
Arrogant and compacent, did not see the need to gather and attract more support
had only a narrow base of support, only from soldiers/students and youths
his idea of world revolution did not go down well with the masses, The people were more concerned that the basic needs of the people were met first!
form alliances with other party members to drive his enemies out, Made use of Kamenev and Zinoviev to get Trotksy out., He would later turned against them
had the power to appoint his own supporters as officials, Thus many officials owe their position to him thus was loyal, able to pack a 1925 meeting with his supporters - voted Trotsky out of the party!
controlled the local party committees
Multiple Lands were joined and 90% of harvest given to the government while they are allowed to keep 10% for themselves. The government would then share the profits with everyone!
5 Year PLans, Total of Three 5 Year Plans wwere carried out
Riots and resistance, Stalin responded by killing 17 million horses to pressure people into the use of tractors
Getting rid of people who oppossed collectivisation, sent to Gulags
Famine, Severe Food Shortages, USA offered help but Stalin rejected
Poor Work Conditions
System of rewards/trainings
Changing living conditions
Fear and suspicion, Anybody could denounce anybody and just report to NKVD
Mass Executions, 20 million Russians became victims
Religious Persecutions, Stalin thought that religion promoted harmful superstitions
PURGES, wrongfully accused people to remove his threats, E.g Kamenev
Show Trials, confessed to charges as they were threatened and pressured from within