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biology by Mind Map: biology
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microorganisms and food

yogurt production 1) steam clean vessel 2) pasteurise milk. 3) add starter culture of bacteria, then incubated in a fermenter. 4) bacteria ferment lactose sugar to form lactic acid=causes milk to clot and solidify into yogurt. 5) flavours and colours sometimes added, then packaged

soy sauce 1) cooked soybeans and roasted wheat are mixed 2) fermented by aspergillus niger 3) then fermented by yeast 4) fermented by lactobacillus 5) filtered 6) bottled

functional food health benifits, plant stanol esters 1) chemicals that can lower blood cholesterol + reduce risk of heart disease. 2) can be added to spreads and dairy products 3) occur naturally in plants but in small quantities, commercially produced by using bacteria to convert sterols into stanols, prebiotics 1) non-digestible carbohydrates promote bacteria in the gut. 2) occur naturally, can be taken as supplements

microbial products, enzymes - biological catalyst, invertase - sweets - converts sucrose into glucose and fructose

diet and obesity

nutrience, carbohydrates - provides energy - complex and non complex, fats - provides energy, energy store, insulation, form cell membranes and steroid hormones, proteins - needed for growth and tissue repair, provides energy in emergencies., vitamins - vitamin c for healthy connective tissue, minerals - iron - make hemoglobin, water - need constant supply

unbalanced diet, protein deficiency- kwashiokor, problem in developing countries, vitamin deficiency - scurvy, vitamin c, mineral deficiency - lack of iron = anemia

obesity, 20% or more over recommended body weight, too many sugary/fatty foods and lack of exercise are main causes, under active thyroid gland, increase risk of, diabetes, arthritis, high blood pressure, coronary heart disease

genetically modified plants

New node

new treatment-drugs


taxol, anti-cancer drug, from the bark of the pacific Yew tree

quinine, from the Cinchona tree, treatment against maleria

artemisinin, anti-malerial drug, from artemisia annua

drug development, exppensive, hav patent toget bak more to cover the research costs

new treatment-using genetics

future, possible totailor genes to aspecific person, to reduce sideeffects?

identifing genesand what they do can help tosee how a disease is caused.

G.M orgnisms, genetically engineer microorganisms to produce proteins(insuin), + other protins, don't tohave to get the protein from pigs and cows. less animal rights, cheaper,easier, produce inlarge amounts andthe proteeins arehumanform = less likely to be rejeted

reproductive technoligy