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biology by Mind Map: biology

1. topic1

1.1. microorganisms and food

1.1.1. yogurt production 1) steam clean vessel 2) pasteurise milk. 3) add starter culture of bacteria, then incubated in a fermenter. 4) bacteria ferment lactose sugar to form lactic acid=causes milk to clot and solidify into yogurt. 5) flavours and colours sometimes added, then packaged

1.1.2. soy sauce 1) cooked soybeans and roasted wheat are mixed 2) fermented by aspergillus niger 3) then fermented by yeast 4) fermented by lactobacillus 5) filtered 6) bottled

1.1.3. functional food health benifits plant stanol esters 1) chemicals that can lower blood cholesterol + reduce risk of heart disease. 2) can be added to spreads and dairy products 3) occur naturally in plants but in small quantities, commercially produced by using bacteria to convert sterols into stanols prebiotics 1) non-digestible carbohydrates promote bacteria in the gut. 2) occur naturally, can be taken as supplements

1.1.4. microbial products enzymes - biological catalyst invertase - sweets - converts sucrose into glucose and fructose

1.2. diet and obesity

1.2.1. nutrience carbohydrates - provides energy - complex and non complex fats - provides energy, energy store, insulation, form cell membranes and steroid hormones proteins - needed for growth and tissue repair, provides energy in emergencies. vitamins - vitamin c for healthy connective tissue minerals - iron - make hemoglobin water - need constant supply

1.2.2. unbalanced diet protein deficiency- kwashiokor, problem in developing countries vitamin deficiency - scurvy, vitamin c mineral deficiency - lack of iron = anemia

1.2.3. obesity 20% or more over recommended body weight too many sugary/fatty foods and lack of exercise are main causes under active thyroid gland increase risk of diabetes arthritis high blood pressure coronary heart disease

1.3. genetically modified plants

1.3.1. New node

1.4. new treatment-drugs

1.4.1. asprin

1.4.2. taxol anti-cancer drug from the bark of the pacific Yew tree

1.4.3. quinine from the Cinchona tree treatment against maleria

1.4.4. artemisinin anti-malerial drug, from artemisia annua

1.4.5. drug development exppensive, hav patent toget bak more to cover the research costs

1.5. new treatment-using genetics

1.5.1. future, possible totailor genes to aspecific person to reduce sideeffects?

1.5.2. identifing genesand what they do can help tosee how a disease is caused.

1.5.3. G.M orgnisms genetically engineer microorganisms to produce proteins(insuin) + other protins don't tohave to get the protein from pigs and cows. less animal rights cheaper,easier, produce inlarge amounts andthe proteeins arehumanform = less likely to be rejeted

1.6. reproductive technoligy