by Gary Molloy
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Sulfuric Acid is a clear and odourless yet
corrosive gas. Sulfuric acid is the largest
volume industrial chemical produced in the
Uses: 1. Agricultural ferlisers (65%), 2. Dyes, alcohols,
plastics, rubber, ehter, glue, film, explosives, drugs,
paints, food containers, wood preservatives, soaps and
detergents, pharmaceutical products, petroleum
products, pulp and paper. 3. The common lead-acid
storage battery uses Sulfuric acid.
2. Many industrial
Le Chatelier's Principle.
CH4(g) + H2O(l) <--> CO(g) + 3H2(g)
Change: Increase concentration of a reactant e.g.[CH4] increases. Effect: Shifts right to use methane, increasing yield of CO and H2.
Change:Decrease concentration of a product e.g. remove CO. Effect: Shifts right to make more.
Change: Increase pressure (decrease volume). Effect:Shifts left (fewer particles) to drop pressure again.
Change: Increase temperature. Effect: Endothermic reaction ( is positive) so equilibrium shifts right to absorb added heat.
5. Saponification is
In the industrial manufacture of soap, tallow (fat from animals such as
cattle and sheep) or vegetable fat is heated with sodium hydroxide.
Once the saponification reaction is complete, sodium chloride is added
to precipitate the soap. The water layer is drawn off the top of the
mixture and the glycerol is recovered using vacuum distillation.
The crude soap obtained from the saponification reaction contains sodium
chloride, sodium hydroxide, and glycerol. These impurities are removed by
boiling the crude soap curds in water and re-precipitating the soap with
salt. After the purification process is repeated several times, the soap
may be used as an inexpensive industrial cleanser.
Saponification is the hydrolysis (Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction during
which molecules of water H2O are split into hydrogen cations H+ and
hydroxide anions OH− in the process of a chemical mechanism) of an
ester under basic conditions to form an alcohol and the salt of a
carboxylic acid (carboxylates). Saponification is commonly used to refer
to the reaction of a metallic alkali (base) with a fat or oil to form soap.
Saponifiable substances are those that can be converted into soap.
Marc was here
6. The Solvay process
has been in use
since the 1860s
Raw Materials and products: The Solvay Process is a continuous process
using limestone (CaCO3) to produce carbon dioxide (CO2) which reacts
with ammonia (NH3) dissolved in brine (concentrated NaCl(aq)) to
produce sodium carbonate.
Uses of Sodium Carbonate is mainly used in the production of glass, where a
mixture of Na2CO3, CaCO3 and SiO2 (silicon dioxide sand) is used for
window or bottle glass. It can also be used as a
Water Softening Agent, CO32- from dissolved Na2CO3 can precipitate Mg2+
and Ca2+ ions from hard water as the insoluble carbonates, preventing
them from forming a precipitate with soap resulting in scum. For this reason,
sodium carbonate is also known as washing soda.
3. Sulfuric acid is one of the
most important industrial
The term saponification is the name given to the chemical reaction that
occurs when a vegetable oil or animal fat is mixed with a strong alkali.
The products of the reaction are two: soap and glycerin. Water is also
present, but it does not enter into the chemical reaction. The water is
only a vehicle for the alkali, which is otherwise a dry powder.
4. The industrial production of sodium
hydroxide requires the use of
The electrolysis of sodium chloride to produce sodium hydroxide and
chlorine can be carried out in 3 types of electrolytic cells - mercury,
diaphragm and membrane cells. The diaphragm cell is used most, but the
membrane cell is becoming more common as it is used in most new
When a solution is placed in an electrolytic cell, a number of reactions is possible. A
sodium chloride solution contains sodium ions, chloride ions and also water, so there is
more than one possible reaction at each electrode. Remember that the higher the
reduction potential, the more easily the substance is reduced (and thus the greater its
oxidising power). The reduction potential of water is higher than the reduction
potential of the ions of active metals, so water is often reduced rather than the active
Electrolysis of sodium hydroxide
Sodium Hydoxide crystals
The electrolyte solutions in a membrane cell are separated by a cation exchange membrane.
This is really an improved diaphragm, allowing Na+ ions to move across, but not allowing OH– ions to cross it.
New membranes developed allow the electrodes to be very close to each other, on opposite sides of the membrane.
This makes the cell very energy efficient, allowing considerable savings.
Industrial chemistry processes have
enabled schientists to develop
replacements for natural products