My Foundation of Education

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My Foundation of Education by Mind Map: My Foundation of Education

1. Knowledge and Attitude p.121- Higher the social class of the student, the higher the achievement level is.

1.1. Ron Edmonds was one of the first researches to show that differences in schools are related to differences in student outcomes.. In more recent research, students who attended summer school, used the library and read more in the summer made greater gains in knowledge than those who did not attend summer school. More educated people are more likely to read more, take part in politics and public affairs, have a better sense of well-being and self-esteem.

2. Effects of Schooling; Do schools matter?? YES!!!

2.1. Teacher Behavior p.124-Teachers are models for students, instructional leaders, set standards for students and influence student self-esteem. Rosenthal and Jacobson found that teachers' expectations of students were found to directly influence student achievement. The labels that teachers apply to children can influence actual performance! *Self-fulfilling prophecy* indicates that teachers' expectations play a major role in encouraging or discouraging students to work to their full potential.

2.1.1. Persell found when teachers demanded more from students and praised them more, students learned more and felt better about themselves. Research also states that teachers have lower expectations for minority and working-class students. Teachers should not be held responsible for all failures, but the findings on teacher expectations DO indicate that the attitudes of teachers toward their students has a significant influence on student achievement and perceptions of self!!

3. Politics of Education

3.1. Liberal Perspective

3.2. Unequal Educational Performance-p.28- individual students or groups of students begin school with different life chances; some groups have more advantages than others; policy and programs equalize the playing field so disadvantaged students also have a chance.

3.3. Educational Problems- p.29- Schools often limit the life chances of poor and minority children; schools place too much emphasis on discipline and authority; limiting their role in helping students develop as individuals.

3.3.1. *urban education* p.7

3.4. Educational Policy and Reform-p.30-Quality for all students with equality of opportunity for all; improve failing schools by school-based management and teacher empowerment; enhance equality of opportunity for the disadvantaged like Head Start; balance between setting acceptable performance standards and ensuring all students can meet those standards.

3.4.1. *Charter schools??*

3.5. Education and American Dream- p.32- individual achievement is more important than one's family background, tolerance of others who are different is important.

3.6. Role of School- p.27- Balancing the needs of society and the individual that is consistent with a democratic and meritocratic society. All citizens receive a fair and equal opportunity for economic wealth, social status, and political power.

3.6.1. "To believe in education is to believe in the future, to believe in what may be accomplished through the disciplined use of intelligence, allied with cooperation, and good will." -Diane Ravitch, historian of education.

3.7. Progressive Vision

3.8. Schools are central to solving social issues.

3.9. Vehicle for upward mobility,

3.10. Integral part of a democratic society.

3.11. Schools should be part of the steady progress to make things better.

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Purpose of Education

4.1.1. Existentialism and Phenomenology-p.190- Existentialists believe education should focus on the needs of individuals. Education should stress individuality..

4.1.2. Pragmatism-p.188- Dewey's primary role of education was growth. In Democracy and Education, Dewey (1916) stated that education had no other goals than growth- growth leading to more growth. Lawrence Cremin (1990) noted: "the aim of education is ultimately to make human beings who will live life to the fullest, who will continually add to the quality and meaning of their experience and to their ability to direct that experience, and who will participate actively with their fellow human beings in the building of a good society."

4.2. Role of the Teacher

4.2.1. Pragmatism-p.189- The teacher encourages, offers suggestions, questions, and helps plan and implement courses of study. The teacher writes a curriculum and must have a command of several disciplines in order to implement the curriculum.

4.2.2. Existentialism and Phenomenology-p.191- Teachers take risks. Teachers expose themselves to resistant students, and they work constantly to enable students to become, in Greene's words, "wide awake."

4.2.3. The idealist teacher sees herself as a role model to the classroom. p182

4.3. Curriculum

4.3.1. Curriculum for realists consist of the basics: science, math, writing, reading, and humanities. There is a body of knowledge that is essential for the student to master in order to be part of the society. p.185

4.3.2. Pragmatism-p.187- Children learn skills both experimentally and from books, in addition to traditional information, which would enable students to work cooperatively in a society. Howard Gardner believed that Dewey proposed a balance between traditional principles, and the needs of and interests of the child.

4.4. Method of Instruction

4.4.1. Existentialism and Phenomenology-p.191- They believe that each child has a different learning style. It is the teacher's role to discover what works for each child. Martin Buber, an existentialist, wrote about the I-thou approach, whereby student and teacher learn cooperatively from each other.

4.4.2. Pragmatism-p.189- Dewey states that children learn both individually and in groups. Children should start their mode of inquiry by posing questions about what they want to know and learn. (problem-solving or inquiry method.)

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. Teachers are not only skilled in teaching, but they must be skilled in so many other areas of expertise. These roles include: colleague, friend, nurturer of the learner, facilitator of learning, researcher, program developer, administrator, decision maker, professional leader, and community activist.

5.1.1. The Complex Roles of the Teacher: An Ecological Perspective (1984) Heck and Williams

5.1.2. "Role Switching" is demanding and may be one of the reasons for teacher burnout.

5.2. "The social realities of teaching" Lieberman and Miller (1984) identified elements of the teaching experience that give it its unique flavor. They believed the central contradiction of teaching is that: "teachers have to deal with a group of students and teach them something and, at the same time, deal with each child as an individual. The teachers, then, have two missions: one universal and cognitive, and the other particular and affective.

5.2.1. Teachers develop all kinds of different teaching and classroom strategies. that become personal and evolve into a teaching style. Teachers are like craftspeople, and most of the craft is learning on the job. Teaching is messy and personal undertaking.

5.2.1.1. The only reward is the students.

5.2.1.1.1. "dailiness of teaching" ~Horace's Compromise~ his day is punctuated by set of rules, interactions, and feelings that are played out on a day to day basis with a certain predictability.

5.3. *Teacher Professionalism* only partially professionalized. There is little opportunity for teachers to gain a reputation for excellence outside of their school or school district unlike other professions.

5.3.1. "Incomplete subculture"

5.3.2. Linda M. McNeil, an educational researcher, wrote about what she calls the contradictions of control.

5.4. School-based management must empower teachers in terms of their decision making capacities about curriculum, discipline, and other academic areas of importance.

6. History of US Education

6.1. Colonial Era: The theme of utilitarianism can be seen through Benjamin Franklin. He called for an education for youth based on secular and utilitarianism rather than on traditional studies of religion and classics. Franklin believed that students should pursue a course of study that would allow them mastery of process rather than rote learning. Reading, writing, public speaking, and art as a means of understanding creative expression would be integral components of the curriculum.

6.1.1. The civic movement for education is best seen through the ideas of Thomas Jefferson. He believed that the best safeguard for democracy was a literate population. Jefferson proposed a "Bill for the More General Diffusion Knowledge," which provided free education to ALL children for the first three years of elementary school. Jefferson thought if citizens possessed enough education to read newspapers and inform themselves of public issues, they would make smart and informed decisions at the polls.

6.2. The Age of Reform: Rise of Common School- p.67

6.2.1. The struggle for free public education was led by Horace Mann~ the first state "normal school", or teaching training school, was established in Lexington, Massachusetts.~ Mann's arguments for the establishment of the "common school", or free publicly funded elementary schools, reflects both the concern for stability and order and he concern for social mobility.

6.3. Progressive Movement: p.70- John Dewey advocated the creation of a curriculum that would allow for the child's interests and developmental level while introducing the child to "the point of departure from which the child can trace and follow the progress of mankind in history, getting an insight into the materials used and the mechanical principles involved." *THE RESULT OF EDUCATION WAS GROWTH*

6.3.1. Dewey created the Laboratory School a the University of Chicago. Children studied basic subjects in an integrated curriculum. The school should reflect the "completeness" and "unity" of "the child's own world." Advocated active learning. The school was a miniature community or an "embryonic society." ~G. Stanley Hall: progressive reform became known as child-centered reform.

6.3.1.1. On the opposite side of child-centered reform was social engineering reform, proposed by Edward L. Thorndike. He believed that schools could change human beings in a positive way. Schools should be meaningful experience for students and that schools should prepare students to earn a living ~Franklin Bobbitt: the purpose of curriculum design was to create a curriculum that would include the full range of human experience and prepare students for life. .

6.4. Progressive and Traditional p.74- "Regressive education"~ teaching children to THINK

6.4.1. Equality of Opportunity p76- Lawrence Cremin pointed out that Americans have expected their schools to solve social, political, and economic problems, and have placed on the schools "all kinds of millennial hopes and expectations"

6.4.1.1. The GI Bill of Rights offered 16 million servicemen and women the opportunity to pursue higher education

7. Sociological Perspective

7.1. Functional Theories

7.1.1. p.117/118-stresses the *interdependence* of the social system;they view society as kind of a machine, where one part articulates with another to produce the dynamic energy required to make society work.

7.1.1.1. Emile Durkheim-recognized education had taken different forms at different times and places, and he believed education, in virtually all societies, was of critical importance in creating the moral unity necessary for social cohesion and harmony; moral values were the foundation of society. Schools socialize students into the appropriate values.

7.2. Interactional Theories

7.2.1. What do students and teachers actually do at school?!?

7.2.1.1. behaviors and interactions between students and teachers; and between students and students; It is what one does NOT question that is most problematic at a deep level. Ex.) the process by which students are labeled "gifted" or "learning disabled" are important to analyze, because such processes carry with them many implicit assumptions about learning and children.

7.2.1.1.1. Basil Bernstein~ argued that the structural aspects of educational system and interactional aspects reflect each other and must be viewed wholistically. He examined how speech patterns reflect students' social backgrounds and how students from working-class backgrounds are at a disadvantage in the school setting, because schools are usually middle-class organizations.

8. Curriculum and Pedagogy

8.1. The History and Philosophy of the Curriculum

8.1.1. p. 284-The developmental curriculum is based on the needs and interests of the student. *Related to Dewey's writings related to the relationship between the child and the curriculum. Stressed the importance of relating schooling to the life experiences of each child in a way that would make education come alive! Teacher is a facilitator of growth.

8.1.1.1. School and curriculum historians pointed out the developmental curriculum may not have been very influential in the US public schools, but they did find that it was influential in teacher education programs and in independent and alternative schools.

8.2. Sociology of the Curriculum

8.2.1. p.291- Modern functionalist theory, developed in the U,S, by Talcott Parsons and Robert Dreeben, stressed the role of schools in preparing students for the increasingly complex roles required in a modern society. The school curriculum is designed to enable students to function within this type of society.. Schools moved away from the teaching of isolated facts through memorization to the general task of teaching students how to learn. Schools teach the general values and norms essential to a modern society. Schools teach students to respect each other! The functionalist theory is a positive view of the role of the schools and suggests that what schools teach are the general norms, values, and knowledge required for the maintenance and development of a modern society.

8.3. Multiculural Education

8.3.1. Culturally revelent pedagogy- p294- describes characteristics of successful teachers of African-American students`~high self-esteem and high regard for others~seeing themselves as part of the community~BELIEVING THAT ALL STUDENTS CAN SUCCEED~helping students make connections between their community, national, and global identities~

8.4. Pedagogic Practices

8.4.1. p.296- Mimetic tradition states the purpose of education is to transmit specific knowledge to students. Has a clear statement of learning goals and a clear means to assess if students have acquired the learning goals.

8.4.1.1. The transformative tradition states that the purpose of education is to change the student in some MEANINGFUL way~ intellectually, creatively, spiritually, and emotionally. A MORE multi-dimensional way of teaching! Teaching and learning are linked. The conversation between teacher and students is that the student becomes an integral part of the learning process.

9. Equality of Opportunity

9.1. Educational Achievement and Attainment of African-American, Hispanic-American, and Women Studies-pg.344- The academic achievement of students from different background is very important to the sociological research in the education field.

9.1.1. "The Condition of Education" gives statistical data on a variety of important educational issues. The following data is from "The Condition of Education, 2012.

9.1.1.1. Figure 8.5-8.6 (p350-352) shows that females achieve at higher levels in reading at ages 9,13, and 17; females achieve at slightly higher levels in math at age 9 and at lower levels at age 13 and 17; and they achieve at lower levels in science at ages 9,13, and 17. Females have outperformed males in reading since 1973 and males have outperformed females in math and since since 1973.

9.1.1.1.1. From 1973-1986, the gaps in reading and math between 13 year old African Americans and Hispanics and whites narrowed and then they increased from 1986-1999. These gaps have stayed constant through 2008.

9.1.1.2. "The Condition of Education" does NOT include measures of socioeconomic status and social class background in order to provide similar analyses of the relationship between social class and educational achievement and attainment. Also, the data does not control for the independent effects of social class with respect to racial, ethnic, and gender differences.

9.1.1.2.1. p.358-363, low income and minority students are more likely to have less challenging curricula, less likely to be in advanced classes, more likely to have under qualified and less experienced teachers, more likely to be in larger classes, more likely to change schools, and less likely to have their parents participate in activities than affluent and white students.

9.2. The Coleman Study- pg.366- James Coleman received a grant to study the relationship between the organizational characteristics of schools and student achievement. His motivation was to show that African American students and white students had different school experiences.

9.2.1. Responses to Coleman: Round One~ Where one goes to school has little effect on his or her cognitive growth or educational mobility.

10. Educational Inequality

10.1. Functionalists expect the schooling process will produce unequal results, but these results should be based on individual differences between students, not on group differences. Although there is a persistent relationship between family background and educational outcomes, this does not mean that the system fails to provide equality of opportunity.

10.1.1. It is important to understand the sources of educational inequality to ensure the elimination of structural barriers to educational success and to provide all groups a fair chance to compete in the educational marketplace.

10.2. *Race-, class-, and gender-based inequalities of educational attainment and achievement.

10.2.1. Two sets of explanations: 1. "student-centered" which is centered on factors outside the school, like family, community, the culture of the group, the peer group, and the student. 2."school-centered" which is centered on factors within the school like the teachers and the teaching methods, curriculum, ability grouping, curriculum tracking, school climate, and teacher expectations.

10.3. The school-centered research focused on both between and within-school process.

10.3.1. Curriculum and Pedagogic Practices p.433: Effective school research shows how differences in what is often termed school climates affect academic performance. Looks at differences between schools in inner-city, lower socioeconomic neighborhoods to show that schools can make a difference.

10.3.1.1. Bernstein suggested schools in working class areas are more likely to have authoritarian and teacher directed pedagogic practices and to have social efficiency curriculum at the secondary level. Schools in middle class areas are more likely to attend elite public schools with authoritarian pedagogic practices.

10.3.2. Curriculum and Ability Grouping pg. 434

10.3.2.1. Different groups of students in same schools perform differently suggests that there may be school characteristics affecting these outcomes

10.3.2.1.1. Functionalists believe that tracking is an important mechanism by which students are separated based on ability and to ensure that the best and brightest receive the type of education required to prepare them for society's most essential positions. * Needs to make sure that tracking is fair and meritocratic based on ability and hard work

11. Educational Reform and School Improvement

11.1. Teacher Education-p.528: The emergence and development of teacher education as an educational problems was a responce to the initial debates concerning the failure of the schools. If schools were not working properly, then teachers and teaching may be the most important part of the problem and should ne looked at critically.

11.1.1. *National Education Association (NEA) and the American Federation of Teachers (AFT)

11.1.1.1. The education and training of teachers starting point for analysis..... 1. The perceived lack of rigor and intellectual demands in teacher education programs. 2. The need to attract and retain competent teacher candidates. 3. The necessity to reorganize the academic and professional components of teacher education programs at both the baccalaureate and post-baccalaureate levels.

11.1.1.1.1. The Carnegie Report, entitled "A Nation Prepared: Teachers for the 21st Century" and prepared by its Task Force on Teaching as a Profession focused on the necessity of educational quality for a competitive US economy and the value of education in a democratic political system. *Improvements in teacher education were necessary preconditions for improvements in education*

11.2. The National Commission on Teaching and America's Future recommended: 1. Get serious about standards, for both both students and teachers. 2. Reinvent teacher preparation and professional development. 3. Fix teacher recruitment and put qualified teachers in every classroom. 4. Encourage and reward teacher knowledge and skill. 5. Create schools that are organized for student and teacher success.