Organizational Behavior

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Organizational Behavior by Mind Map: Organizational Behavior

1. Conflict, power and politics

1.1. Power

1.1.1. is a social process by which outcomes can be achieved.

1.1.1.1. One-dimensional view of power Focus on behaviour, decision making, key issues, observable conflict, subjective interests, seen as policy preferences revealed by political participation.

1.1.1.2. Two-dimensional view of power Qualified critique of behavioural focus. Focus on decision making and no decision making, observable conflict (overt or covert), subjective interests

1.1.1.3. Three-dimensional view of power Critique of behavioural focus. Focus on decision making and control over political agenda (not necessarily through decisions), issues and potential issues, observable (overt or covert) and latent

1.2. Politics

1.2.1. how disagreements involving the allocation of resources can be resolved.

1.3. Conflict

1.3.1. can arise from disagreements between the actors in an organization whether at individual, group, team or departmental level

1.3.1.1. personal

1.3.1.2. interpersonal

1.3.1.3. inter-group

1.3.1.4. inter-organizational

1.3.1.5. international

1.3.2. stage of dispute

1.3.2.1. Stage 1 Anticipation. The manager learns of a planned event that will result in change.

1.3.2.2. Stage 2 Conscious, unexpressed difference. Awareness rises among the people who will be affected by the change. Tensions rise.

1.3.2.3. Stage 3 Discussion. Information is presented, questions are asked and differing opinions emerge openly.

1.3.2.4. Stage 4 Open dispute. The parties present their cases to each other and argue. Differences now sharpen into clearly defined points of view.

1.3.2.5. Stage 5 Open conflict. The parties are now committed to their positions. The dispute is clearly defined. The outcome can now only be described in terms of win, lose or compromise.

2. Organizational culture

2.1. culture

2.1.1. is something about which people feel they have an intuitive understanding and many of the conceptualizations of organizational culture will have a reassuring familiarity.

2.2. Beliefs, values and attitudes

2.2.1. ‘a broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others’ and these will be reflective of ethical moral and behavioural standards.

2.3. Assumptions

2.3.1. Over time, values, beliefs and attitudes, unless shocked out of the system, will become so entrenched that they are no longer expressed or debated, or even discussed, but become in essence the fabric of culture.

2.4. Life-cycle framework of culture

2.4.1. Birth and early growth. During this phase, it is likely that the founder will have a predominant role in the development of the culture of the organization. As founder, he or she is likely to have strong views about the values that should be espoused, how the organization should be structured and how performance should be measured. In addition, the founder is likely to have a key role in appointing personnel and in designing roles and functions. It is likely at this stage that the firm will share a united culture.

2.4.2. Growth. As the firm grows, it is likely to develop new products, strategies and approaches towards its competitors and customers. It is also likely to be involved in geographical expansion and maybe mergers and alliances. At this stage, members of the organization are likely to be investigating

2.4.3. Maturity. Presuming the firm has survived this long, it is likely to have developed what it believes to be a set of appropriate successful strategies for dealing with its environment. These will now become embedded in the mindsets of its members, and will be enshrined as assumptions taken for granted. At this stage it will be extremely difficult to effect any cultural change.

2.4.4. Decline or turnaround. The embedded nature of the cultural assumptions mentioned above suggests that it may be extremely difficult for members of the firm to envisage any solutions to external and internal difficulties that have not been successful in the past. It is now that the influence of an external agent may be necessary to effect the turnaround.

2.5. Perspectives on the divisions of culture

2.5.1. The integration

2.5.2. The differentiation perspective

2.5.3. The fragmentation

3. Coda: HRM and OB – accenting the social

3.1. to recognize on the one hand the centrality of the employment relationship in capitalist society, but on the other hand to address the problem of ordering the relationship mindful of the role of organizations as social institutions.

4. Leadership, communication and organizational effectiveness

4.1. Categories of leadership theory

4.1.1. Essentialism

4.1.2. Contingency theory

4.1.3. Transformational theories

4.1.4. Contextualism

4.2. Critical management scholarship

4.2.1. is a disparate field encompassing critical versions of postmodernism

4.2.1.1. Managerialism

4.3. New approaches to leadership

4.3.1. Leadership for knowledge and service-based work

4.3.2. Leadership and ethical practice

4.3.3. More progressive forms of management

4.4. Authentic leadership theories

4.4.1. The expanding functions of leaders

4.4.1.1. Stewardship

4.4.1.2. Capability building

4.4.1.3. Handling paradox

4.4.1.4. Involving people

4.4.1.5. Building trust and collaboration

5. Managing organizational change

5.1. Drivers and triggers of change

5.1.1. challenges of growth, especially global markets

5.1.2. economic downturns and tougher trading conditions

5.1.3. technological changes

5.1.4. competitive actions and pressures, including mergers and acquisitions

5.1.5. changes in customers’ demands and tastes

5.1.6. government legislation, initiatives and policies

5.1.7. political drivers and changes in government ideologies.

5.2. Internal drivers and triggers of organizational

5.2.1. changes in strategy

5.2.2. the need to learn new behaviour and skills

5.2.3. low performance and morale

5.2.4. the arrival of new personnel or the emergence of a new outlook;

5.2.5. innovations in new products, and service design and delivery.

5.3. Different types of change

5.3.1. Fine tuning

5.3.2. Incremental adjustment

5.3.3. Modular transformation

5.3.4. Corporate transformation

5.4. Planned change Models of planned change have been particularly popular with practitioners.

5.4.1. Emergent change The concept of planned change has been challenged by writers who believe that it does not account for the influence of structural forces that reside outside the control of individuals and therefore they have conceived organizational change as an emergent process.

5.4.2. Resistance to change The key challenge facing managers involved in change initiatives is that of resistance to change, ie the inability or unwillingness of individuals or groups to adopt the changes proposed.

5.4.3. The change agent Over the last three decades there has been a growing interest in the role and significance of change agents in organizations.

5.4.3.1. Leadership models: Change agents are identified as leaders or senior executives who initiate or sponsor strategic change or transformational nature.

5.4.3.2. Consultancy models: Change agents are identified as internal or external consultants who operate at a strategic, operational, task or process level in an organization, and provide advice, expertise and process skills in facilitating change.

5.4.3.3. Team models: Change agents are conceived as teams that may operate at different levels – strategic, operational, task or process level – in an organization and may be composed of managers, functional specialists, employees at all levels, and internal and external consultants.

5.4.3.4. Management models: Change agents are identified as middle level managers and functional specialists who carry out or build support for strategic change in business units or key functions.

6. Creativity, innovation and the management of knowledge

6.1. Stimulating, supporting and sustaining creativity and innovation

6.1.1. The individual Notions of the lone creative genius have long given way to perspectives that emphasize everyone has the potential, yet generation of creative ideas remains uncommon

6.1.2. Climate for creativity and innovation That creative behaviour is easily overshadowed by an unsupportive environment leads to the significance of organizational culture and climate.

6.2. Organizational learning and knowledge management

6.2.1. As the combination of energy, resources and machine technology were the transformational agencies of industrial society, knowledge and information are the strategic resource and transforming agent of the post-industrial society

6.3. The learning organization and organizational learning

6.3.1. The idea of the learning organization has attracted much criticism since the early work

6.4. Knowledge management

6.4.1. Variously, commentary has attempted to help codify what occurs in thinking and learning in organizational contexts, to make these phenomena amenable to management.

7. Talent management

7.1. Strategic talent management

7.1.1. Traditional HR practices are used.

7.1.2. There is a new term for succession planning with an emphasis on developing talent pools and tracking the progress of employees through positions.

7.1.3. People’s natural capability or learned skills that benefit an is made between top and poor performers and people are managed accordingly.

7.1.4. Key positions that have the potential to make a difference to business success are identified.

7.2. the talent ideology developed

7.2.1. Talented leaders are required by the increasingly complex global economy.

7.2.2. The search for extremely effective employees has become

7.2.3. Talented employees have a highly disproportionate impact on a company’s performance.

7.3. Challenges and changing contexts in talent management

7.3.1. labour shortages

7.3.2. changing demographics

7.3.3. greater demand for work–life balance

7.3.4. skills gap

7.3.5. experience gap

7.3.6. increased professional mobility

7.3.7. lagging educational attainment.

7.4. Key components of strategic talent management

7.4.1. Goals and resources in managing talent (talent wheel)

7.4.1.1. talent planning – identifying the gap between demand and supply of talent

7.4.1.2. talent identification – assessment of employees’ performance, potential and readiness to advance

7.4.1.3. talent categorization – classifying individuals as ‘high performers, solid performers or poor performers’ based on the talent identification process

7.4.1.4. career management – a process that involves matching employees’ visions and career plans with organizational needs reflecting their talent classification

7.4.1.5. talent balance sheet – a consolidation of data collected about the employee.