Youth Work

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Youth Work by Mind Map: Youth Work

1. Definitions of Youth Work

1.1. The AYAC definition highlights the most important aspects of youth work, such as:

1.1.1. Highlighting the importance of advocacy and empowerment of young people

1.1.2. Putting young people and their interests first

1.1.3. Working with young people in their own personal contexts

1.1.4. Facilitating independence and participation in society

1.2. Bessant's definition was difficult to comprehend but did highlight some important aspects

1.2.1. The young person is the primary constituent

1.2.2. Young people are influenced by their context

1.2.3. The young person is dealt with holistically

1.3. Smith's definition was easy to understand and a simple set of 5 aspects

1.3.1. 1. Focus on young people - needs, experiences etc.

1.3.2. 2. Young people must volunteer to participate

1.3.3. 3. Foster relationships, community and encourage friendships

1.3.4. 4. Being friendly and supportive. Have faith in people

1.3.5. 5. Education and welfare of young people

2. Detached Youth Work

2.1. Definition

2.1.1. Type of outreach program that aims to contact marginalised young people and provide them with services and support

2.1.2. Sometimes referred to as 'street workers'

2.1.3. Main purpose is to build trusting relationships with young people

2.1.4. Engage with young people within their environments.

2.1.4.1. Skate parks

2.1.4.2. Shopping centres

2.1.4.3. Inner city parks

2.2. Relationship Skills

2.2.1. Making contact

2.2.1.1. Forming positive relationships

2.2.1.2. Sharing common ground

2.2.1.3. Conversations

2.2.1.4. Discuss personal experiences

2.2.1.5. Build Trust

2.2.1.5.1. Without trust, relationships fail

2.2.1.5.2. Trusting people are honest people

2.2.2. Understanding body language

2.2.2.1. Reading clues about the young person

2.2.2.2. Feel the 'vibe'

2.2.2.3. Be aware of your own non-verbal communication

2.2.3. Overcoming rejection and shyness

2.2.4. Boundaries

2.2.4.1. Be aware that some topics/behaviours are not appropriate for young people

2.2.4.2. Knowing where to draw the line

2.2.4.3. Keep relationship appropriate

2.3. Friendships

2.3.1. Boundaries are important here. Understand that you are a professional.

2.3.2. Trusting relationships are key

2.3.3. Disclosure of personal information leads to deeper relationships (progressive matching)

2.4. Informal Education

2.4.1. Learning skills, methods, techniques and values by experience

2.4.2. Support for young people to 'self educate'

2.4.3. Strategies

2.4.3.1. Youth workers joining in with planned activites

2.4.3.2. Being within their environments

2.4.3.3. Engaging in casual conversations

2.4.3.4. Seek to foster learning

2.4.3.5. Creating an environment to foster learning - learning unconsciously

3. Conversations in Youth Work

3.1. Conversations:

3.1.1. Social Activity: engagement, discovery of information, reciprocity

3.1.2. Agreement of Topic: shared decision on what to talk about. Creating dialogue - not a monologue

3.1.3. Immediate Responses: understanding that things can be said 'in the heat of the moment'

3.1.4. Sophisticated Process: needs to be developed and practiced. Understanding what is appropriate to discuss and what is not

3.1.5. Trust and Commitment: being open to views of others

3.1.6. Interpretation: the skill of 'filling in the blanks' or 'reading between the lines'

3.1.7. Complex and Perplexing: invisible rules and protocols that are learned over time

3.2. Informal Counselling:

3.2.1. Meet with young people in their environments

3.2.2. Have 'casual' conversations initiated by the young person

3.2.3. Pre-existing long term relationships

3.2.4. Promote well being

3.2.5. On going support available

3.2.6. Flexible in time, duration and frequency of contact

3.2.7. More opportunities for intervention

3.3. Counselling:

3.3.1. Face to face

3.3.2. In an office

3.3.3. Appointment necessary

3.3.4. Young person has an expectation to be counselled

3.3.5. Counsellor is in control of the environment

3.3.6. Promote well being

3.3.7. Time limited

3.3.8. No pre-exsisting relationship

3.3.9. Have to gain history and background and trust

3.3.10. Restricted in support to amount of sessions

3.4. Conscious Awareness

3.4.1. Being aware of what is going on around you.

3.4.2. What is going on in the background

3.4.3. Understanding non-verbal clues

3.4.4. Adjusting responses accordingly

4. Process of Youth Work

4.1. Different concepts of education

4.1.1. Curriculum as a product

4.1.1.1. Set out in advance

4.1.1.2. Work 'on' people not 'with' people

4.1.1.3. The benefit is that both teachers and learners know what to expect

4.1.1.4. A disadvantage is it can be unresponsive to unexpected opportunities

4.1.2. Curriculum as a process

4.1.2.1. Informal education is in the interests of learners

4.1.2.2. It is a creative process rather than mechanical

4.1.2.3. Can be adapted to meet needs and facilitate learning

4.1.2.4. Flexible but still requires some planning

4.2. Reflective Practice

4.2.1. Gain a deeper understanding of what happened and why, what worked, didn't work etc.

4.2.2. Understand new ways to respond to situations or how a different response may be effective or better

4.2.3. Learning occurs when things go wrong

4.3. Challenging Young People

4.3.1. Constructive challenge is an important part of enlarging peoples experience

4.3.2. Challenging a young person can assist in the presentation of new ideas, skills or interests that they were not aware of.

4.3.3. Programs and environments need to be developed to expose young people to experiences

4.3.4. Challenge thoughts and actions by asking 'why?'

4.3.5. Avoid triggering defence

4.3.6. Invite young people to discuss their assumptions on themselves, others, their environment and their world

5. Evaluation of Youth Work

5.1. Summative

5.1.1. Accountability

5.1.2. Targets being met

5.1.3. Outcomes achieved

5.1.4. How effective the service is

5.1.5. Whether it is good/best practice

5.1.6. Difficult to measure within youth work

5.2. Formative

5.2.1. Reflective practice

5.2.2. Purpose is to improve

5.2.3. Gain a better understanding of what happened

5.2.4. Easier to evaluate youth work

6. Values of Youth Work

6.1. Core values

6.1.1. Respect for persons

6.1.2. Promotion of well-being

6.1.3. Truth

6.1.4. Democracy

6.1.5. Fairness and equality

6.2. Moral authority

6.2.1. Review practices

6.2.2. Be respectful

6.2.3. Have sound knowledge of self and a good attitude

6.2.4. Code of ethics

6.3. Making choices

6.3.1. Allocate time in order of priority

6.3.2. Understand difference between need and benefit

6.3.3. Confidentiality and exceptions

6.4. Role models

6.4.1. Respectful, non-conflict resolution

6.4.2. Acceptance of diversity

6.4.3. Non-acceptance of poor behaviour, eg. Bullying

7. Models of Youth Work

7.1. Historical Traditions

7.1.1. Based on historical traditions that have developed in Youth Work

7.1.1.1. Movement Based Youth Work

7.1.1.1.1. Child saving/rescuing, character building, religious formation etc.

7.1.1.1.2. Leisure and recreation

7.1.1.1.3. Response to industrialisation, social dislocation and loss of church influence

7.1.1.2. Professionalised Youth Work

7.1.1.2.1. Welfare or personal/social education

7.1.1.2.2. Emerged in Australia early 1970's

7.1.1.2.3. Provided directly by state government or indirectly when federal, state or local government funds a non-government organisation

7.2. Political Ideologies

7.2.1. Come from political philosophy and ideology

7.2.2. Examine how various assumptions about young people and the world have shaped youth work policies and practices

7.3. Humanistic approach

7.3.1. Based on anthropology, social psychology and social needs

7.3.2. Examine how culture is supportive to young people and if their needs are met

7.4. Treatment and Reform Models

7.4.1. Treatment

7.4.1.1. Youth worker instils the need for social conformity and self discipline in young people

7.4.1.1.1. Role of Youth Worker

7.4.1.2. Perspectives of treatment

7.4.1.2.1. Make good citizens

7.4.1.2.2. Help youth fit in to society

7.4.1.2.3. Protect youth from corruption

7.4.1.2.4. Discipline

7.4.1.3. Assumptions

7.4.1.3.1. Youth need to know where they stand

7.4.1.3.2. Adults have a duty to guide young people

7.4.1.3.3. Young people who do not conform are deviant, need to be fixed

7.4.1.4. Methods

7.4.1.4.1. Programs that promote conformity, discipline and respect for authority

7.4.1.4.2. Adults know best

7.4.1.4.3. Structured recreation - no time to be led astray

7.4.2. Reform

7.4.2.1. Youth worker attempts to help young people over come previous disadvantages so they are able to succeed in society

7.4.2.1.1. Role of Youth Worker

7.4.2.2. Perspectives of treatment

7.4.2.2.1. Overcome disadvantages

7.4.2.2.2. Enable equal opportunity

7.4.2.2.3. Help youth be successful in their world

7.4.2.2.4. Fight exclusion on terms of race, gender, sexuality etc

7.4.2.3. Assumptions

7.4.2.3.1. Some young people are disadvantaged by their environment or upbringing

7.4.2.3.2. May lead to self harm or harming others

7.4.2.3.3. May have trouble fitting in, need extra support and encouragement

7.4.2.4. Methods

7.4.2.4.1. Programs to motivate young people toward self development

7.4.2.4.2. Overcome missed opportunities

8. Advocacy in Youth Work

8.1. Non-Radical Advocacy

8.1.1. 'Laissez-Faire' approach, youth worker supports and encourages the young person

8.1.2. Empowerment focussed

8.1.3. Educative process, teaches young people to speak up for themselves

8.1.4. Outcomes may take longer to achieve

8.2. Radical Advocacy

8.2.1. Advocate on behalf of individuals

8.2.2. Focus on achieving rights and entitlements

8.2.3. Used in situations where a young person cannot communicate effectively for themselves

8.2.4. Usually results in quicker outcomes