Assessment

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Assessment by Mind Map: Assessment

1. Formative

1.1. Guides student and teacher

1.2. Ongoing

1.3. Descriptive Feedback

1.3.1. What is the goal

1.3.2. Where are you in terms

1.3.3. How can you move forward

1.4. Formative assessment assessment made to determine a student’s knowledge and skills, including learning gaps as they progress through a unit of study used to inform instruction and guide learning occurs during the course of a unit of study makes up the subsequent phase of assessment for learning.

1.5. Add

2. Portfolio

2.1. Portfolio assessment is an evaluation tool used to document student learning through a series of student-developed artifacts. Considered a form of authentic assessment, it offers an alternative or an addition to traditional methods of grading and high stakes exams.

3. High-stakes assessment

3.1. MD Bar Exam

3.2. TOEIC

3.3. Praxis II

3.3.1. Included

3.3.2. Included

3.3.3. Excluded

3.4. TOEFL

3.5. ACT

3.6. SAT

3.7. Entrance and Exit Exams

3.8. Examples of high-stakes tests and their "stakes" include: Driver's license tests and the legal ability to drive Theater auditions and the part in the performance College entrance examinations in some countries, such as Japan's Common first-stage exam, and admission to a high-quality university Many job interviews or drug tests and being hired High school exit examinations and high-school diplomas No Child Left Behind tests and school funding and ratings Ph.D. oral exams and receiving the doctorate Professional licensing and certification examinations (such as the bar exams, FAA written tests, and medical exams) and the license or certification being sought The Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) and recognition as a speaker of English (if a minimum score is required, but not if it is used merely for information [normally in work and school placement contexts])

4. Summative

4.1. Post learning

4.1.1. Project specifications

4.1.2. End User requirements

4.1.3. Action points sign-off

4.2. Can be used as formative assessment

4.2.1. Define actions as necessary

4.3. Overemphasized

4.4. Summative assessment assessment that is made at the end of a unit of study to determine the level of understanding the student has achieved includes a mark or grade against an expected standard

5. Peer and self-assessment

5.1. Rubics

5.1.1. Purpose Students need guidelines to follow before they are able to grade more open ended questions. These often come in the form of rubrics, which lay out different objectives and how much each is worth when grading. Rubrics are often used for writing assignments. Examples of objectives 1.Expression of ideas 2.Organization of content 3.Originality 4.Subject knowledge 5.Content 6.Curriculum alignment 7.Balance 8.Voice

5.2. Examples

5.2.1. Saves teachers' time Student grade assignments can save teacher’s time because an entire classroom can be graded together in the time that it would take a teacher to grade one paper. Moreover, rather than having a teacher rush through each paper, students are able to take their time to correct them. Students can spend more time on a paper because they only have to grade one and can therefore do a more thorough job.

5.3. Guidance from instuctor

5.4. Supportive classroom

5.5. Portfolios

6. Diagnostic

6.1. Placement tests

6.1.1. Materials

6.1.2. Personel

6.1.3. Services

6.1.4. Duration

6.2. Early formative assessment

6.3. Diagnostic assessment (now referred to more often as "pre-assessment") assessment made to determine what a student does and does not know about a topic assessment made to determine a student's learning style or preferences used to determine how well a student can perform a certain set of skills related to a particular subject or group of subjects occurs at the beginning of a unit of study used to inform instruction:makes up the initial phase of assessment for learning

7. Alternative assessment

7.1. What can students DO?

7.1.1. Dependencies

7.1.2. Milestones

7.2. Authentic assessment

7.2.1. Schedule

7.2.2. Budget

7.3. Portfolio assessment

7.3.1. KPI's

7.4. In education, alternative assessment or portfolio assessment is in direct contrast to what is known as performance evaluation, traditional assessment, standardized assessment or summative assessment. Alternative assessment is also known under various other terms, including: authentic assessment integrative assessment holistic assessment assessment for learning formative assessment In the model, students, teachers, and sometimes parents select pieces from a student's combined work over the (usually four) years of school to demonstrate that learning and improvement has taken place over those years. Some of the characteristics of a portfolio assessment is that it emphasizes and evidences the learning process as an active demonstration of knowledge. It is used for evaluating learning processes and learning outcomes. Alternative assessments are used to encourage student involvement in their assessment, their interaction with other students, teachers, parents and the larger community. Formats vary: demonstrations and journals can be used as alternative assessments, portfolio presentations are considered the most wholly representative of a student's learning.

7.5. Assessing ESL Learners Teachers' most difficult assessment challenge is how best to assess ESL students so that their true abilities and potentials are not compromised. All assessment procedures must be considered within the context of ESL students' cultural backgrounds and experiences. Placement When ESL students arrive at school, it is important to gather intake information about their English language proficiency, academic achievement, interests, and short- and long-term goals. Alberta Learning recommends age-appropriate placement for new immigrants. This is based on current research stating that lack of content knowledge and required skills is not reason enough to warrant placing newcomers in lower than age-appropriate grades. Some schools have literacy classrooms where students with limited schooling or proficiency in English are place before being mainstreamed into age-appropriate classrooms. Differentiated instruction and assessment will be key in helping English language learners achieve the same learning outcomes as their same-aged peers.

8. Performance Based

8.1. While traditional testing requires students to answer questions correctly (often on a multiple-choice test), performance assessment requires students to demonstrate knowledge and skills, including the process by which they solve problems.

8.2. The Benefits and Drawbacks of Performance-Based Testing One of the primary difficulties with multiple choice selections is the inability to test the volume of information a student has absorbed and the correlations the student is able to make between concepts taught throughout the class. With performance-based testing, a student is enabled and more responsible for the demonstration of their learning. In contrast to a multiple choice test that a student might do poorly on and consequently blame the format of the questions or answers, performance-based testing forces the students to put their knowledge into context that can be understood and explained. Performance-based testing can be difficult to implement in a large class setting compared to utilizing a standard multiple question type of format for assessment. Large student populations and limited teacher resources would make the timing and cost of performance-based testing more difficult, but conversely, the overall benefit to students can outweigh those concerns in many cases.

8.3. Performance assessment is a term that is commonly used in place of, or with, authentic assessment. Performance assessment requires students to demonstrate their knowledge, skills, and strategies by creating a response or a product (Rudner & Boston, 1994; Wiggins, 1989). Rather than choosing from several multiple-choice options, students might demonstrate their literacy abilities by conducting research and writing a report, developing a character analysis, debating a character's motives, creating a mobile of important information they learned, dramatizing a favorite story, drawing and writing about a story, or reading aloud a personally meaningful section of a story. For example, after completing a first-grade theme on families in which students learned about being part of a family and about the structure and sequence of stories, students might illustrate and write their own flap stories with several parts, telling a story about how a family member or friend helped them when they were feeling sad.

8.3.1. The formats for performance assessments range from relatively short answers to long-term projects that require students to present or demonstrate their work. These performances often require students to engage in higher-order thinking and to integrate many language arts skills. Consequently, some performance assessments are longer and more complex than more traditional assessments. Within a complete assessment system, however, there should be a balance of longer performance assessments and shorter ones.

9. Authentic

9.1. Authentic assessment refers to assessment tasks that resemble reading and writing in the real world and in school (Hiebert, Valencia & Afflerbach, 1994; Wiggins, 1993).

9.2. Working on authentic tasks is a useful, engaging activity in itself; it becomes an "episode of learning" for the student (Wolf, 1989). From the teacher's perspective, teaching to such tasks guarantees that we are concentrating on worthwhile skills and strategies (Wiggins, 1989). Students are learning and practicing how to apply important knowledge and skills for authentic purposes. They should not simply recall information or circle isolated vowel sounds in words; they should apply what they know to new tasks. For example, consider the difference between asking students to identify all the metaphors in a story and asking them to discuss why the author used particular metaphors and what effect they had on the story. In the latter case, students must put their knowledge and skills to work just as they might do naturally in or out of school.

10. Homework Assignment: I will show for each Assessment (a) the advantages and disadvantages of each assessment, (b) indication of whether the assessment is designed primarily as an assessment of learning or for learning and the rationale for your choice, and (c) an example of each assessment for your subject and grade level. Remember to cite references used to develop your mind map.

11. I an effort to NOT over crowd this Mind Map I will not provide all information to each topic. My only reference for this assignment was WIKIPEDIA.